Social Anxiety Disorder
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Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a debilitating and chronic illness characterized by persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations, with a relatively high lifetime prevalence of 7% to 13% in the general population. Although the last two decades have witnessed enormous growth in the study of biological and dispositional factors underlying SAD, comparatively little attention has been directed towards environmental factors in SAD, even though there has been much ongoing work in the area. In this paper, we provide a recent review and critique of proposed environmental risk factors for SAD, focusing on traditional as well as some understudied and overlooked environmental risk factors: parenting and family environment, adverse life events, cultural and societal factors, and gender roles. We also discuss the need for research design improvements and considerations for future directions.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD), once called social phobia, is the most common anxiety disorder that continues to be under-diagnosed. SAD is characterised by a marked, persistent fear and/or avoidance of one or more social situations. The individual is fearful of being exposed to unfamiliar people and/or to possible scrutiny by others. On exposure to the feared situation, intense anxiety or panic attacks may occur, events that for some are perceived as humiliating or embarrassing. Those with SAD seek to be perfect. In the feared situation, they dislike being observed always believing that others are evaluating them unfavourably. While avoidance of the feared situation is the norm, some penetrate the feared situation experiencing anxiety or a panic attack. For the diagnosis of SAD, sufferers must recognise their fear is excessive and unreasonable, and that the condition significantly impairs life. Anticipatory anxiety is a striking feature of SAD. This anxiety occurs prior to entering the feared situation, often surfacing well in advance of the upcoming social event. For some, this anxiety is often as distressing as the anxiety and panic that may occur while in the situation.
Underlying this anxiety are fearful thoughts that one’s performance will not be perfect and an unfavourable evaluation will occur. Often those with SAD, following entry into the feared situation, will undertake a post mortem analysis commonly evaluating their performance unfavourably. To understand Social Anxiety, anxiety itself has to be understood. Anxiety can be an emotional discomfort, a fear, apprehension or a worry that a person has developed.Social anxiety is the the worry of social situations and interactions, along with the fear of being judged or scrutinized by others. This can be characterized by an intense, ego-driven fear of what others are thinking about them (specifically fear of embarrassment, criticism, rejection), that leads to the individual feeling insecure, and not good enough for the people around them. The results of this can create an intense fear and anxiety in social situations, and the assumption that peers will automatically reject them in those social situations.
The difference between social anxiety and normal apprehension of social situations is that social anxiety involves an intense feeling of fear in social situations and especially situations that are unfamiliar or in which one will be watched or evaluated by others. The feeling of fear is so great that in these types of situations one may be so worried that he or she feels anxious just thinking about them and will go to great lengths to avoid them. It occurs for different reasons. Developmental social anxiety occurs early in childhood as a normal part of the development of social functioning, and is a stage that most children grow out of, but problem or chronic social anxiety may persist (perhaps unnoticed) until adolescence or may surface in adulthood. People vary in how often they experience social anxiety and in which kinds of situations. Overcoming social anxiety depends on the person and the situation. In some cases it can be relatively easy—just a matter of time for many individuals—yet for some people social anxiety can become a very difficult, painful and even disabling problem that is chronic in nature. The reasons are unknown.
Social anxiety can be related to shyness or anxiety disorders or other emotional or temperamental factors, but its exact nature is still the subject of research and theory and the causes may vary depending on the individual. Recovery from chronic social anxiety is possible in many cases, but usually only with some kind of therapy or sustained self-help or support group work. A psychopathological (chronic and disabling) form of social anxiety is called social phobia or social anxiety disorder, and is a chronic problem that can result in a reduced quality of life. Standardized rating scales such as Social Phobia Inventory can be used for screening social anxiety disorder and measuring severity of social phobia. Overcoming social anxiety of this type can be very difficult without getting assistance from therapists, psychologists or support groups. Social anxiety can also be self-integrated and persistent for people who suffer from obsessive-compulsive disorder, which can also make the social anxiety harder to overcome, especially if ignored. Some use the terms social anxiety and social phobia interchangeably.
A student’s Academic performance can be greatly affected by social anxiety, not only in one way but in many ways. Students are now influenced by many things which may lead to Social Anxiety, some mentally, emotionally or socially. We chose this topic because most of the grade 7 students here at HMIS are new, which might be a probable cause of Social Anxiety. Teenagers nowadays, are influenced mostly by the internet, their cellphone usage, their peers and many more. Having Social Anxiety might be a problem and it will affect your academic performance. Social Anxiety does not only affect your studies it can also affect your whole life. It can lead you to drug usage, over drinking of alcohol, or even a severe mental illness. Social Anxiety is the most common anxiety that people gain. If it affects your academic performance, you might have trouble gaining good grades. Statement of the Purpose
The study aims to know the effects of Social Anxiety on the Academic Performance of Grade 7 High School students of Hermano Miguel Integrated School. 1. Student’s Profile
2. What are the effects of Social Anxiety on the Academic Performance of Grade 7 High School students of Hermano Miguel Integrated School? 3. What are the factors that affect the Social Anxiety among the Grade 7 high school students of Hermano Miguel Integrated School? 4. To what extent does Social Anxiety affect the Academic Performance of the students. 5. How could Social Anxiety be prevented among Grade 7 High School Students?
Significance of the Study
Results of the Study will be of value to different groups of people: * For the Students:
This study can help them to know what the effects of social anxiety might cause their academic performance. If they know what the effects of social anxiety on them are, they can work on their weaknesses and strengths.
* For the Teacher:
They can help the students who have social anxiety to work on their weaknesses and develop them into strengths.
* For the Parents:
They will know how to guide their children, so that they will not develop social anxiety thus leading to a good life.
* For the Future Researcher:
Results of this study will be of value for future researchers for the reason that this study would benefit them to acquire new ideas on how social anxiety can affect the academic performance of people, when it is acquired, how it can be prevented and what could be the possible outcome or result of the person affected.
Scope and Limitation
The study focuses on the effects of social anxiety on the academic performance of Grade 7 High School students from Hermano Miguel Integrated School. The participants of the study involved 50 freshmen students (18 males and 32 females) from Hermano Miguel Integrated School. The study is only limited on the respondents of this study that are Grade 7 High school students for the school year 2012-2013.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter presents the related literature and studies appraised and reviewd by the researchers through their readings on the subject of the study. 1. Foreign
Social anxiety is defined as the fear and avoidance of social situations in which a person might be exposed to negative evaluation by others. The costs of excessive social anxiety can be considerable. This includes higher probabilities of being single or divorced or having no romantic relationships, a wide range of sexual dysfunctions and occupational impairments, smaller social networks and less social support, general reports of low quality of life, and a greater risk for suicidality and comorbid psychiatric diagnoses (e.g., Bodinger et al., 2002; Davidson, Hughes, George, & Blazer, 1994; Schneier et al., 1994). The vast majority of research suggests that social anxiety exists on a continuum (McNeil, 2001)—from the absence of social fear, through ordinary shyness and mild social anxiety, to more intense, and functionally impairing social fears, including generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD). This continuum will be referred to as the social anxiety spectrum.
Over the past few decades, an extensive body of research has been devoted to defining and cataloguing the distress and impairment associated with and caused by excessive social anxiety. The primary focus on pathology has coincided with minimal consideration of how social anxiety relates to positive, healthy attributes. This article presents a theoretical review and meta-analysis of existing Differentiating positive and negative psychological substrates For decades, it has been proposed that the absence of psychopathology is not synonymous with psychological health (World Health Organization, 1946). Several converging lines of research support the existence of two relatively independent systems of human functioning. Instead of being endpoints on a single continuum, positive and negative affects form two negatively correlated but separate factors (Bradburn, 1969; Diener & Emmons, 1985) with distinct correlates and processes. The differentiation between positive and negative affect has been supported by research on regions of neurological and physiological activity (Davidson, 1992), facial expressions (Ekman, 1982), cognitive style (Cacioppo & Berntson, 1994), decision-making (Lerner & Keltner, 2000), and goal orientation (Higgins, 1998).
Positive and negative experiences can be construed as outputs of separate, adaptive, biobehavioral systems (Gray,1987). Positive experiences derive from the appetitive/approach system, which is sensitive to reward cues and motivates the organism to pursue pleasurable opportunities. Negative experiences derive from the aversive/avoidance system, which is sensitive to threat and danger and motivates the organism to withdraw from potentially painful stimuli. The first increases the likelihood of acquiring skills, knowledge, and resources that lead to personal growth and build social bonds. The second decreases the likelihood of loss and death, and making ill-informed behavioral strategies leading to social exclusion and the loss of access to social group resources. A two-dimensional approach to positive and negative experiences suggests that excessive negative affect does not inevitably lead to diminished positive affect and appetitive processes. A study of the structure of mental health in a study with over 3000 community participants, found two negatively related, independent dimensions (Keyes, 2005).
Measures of the presence or absence of depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and alcohol dependence comprised one factor whereas measures of psychological and social well-being comprised a second factor. Certain psychiatric conditions such as depression and schizophrenia are explicitly defined by diminished positive affect (a single criterion reflecting anhedonia; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). However, a diagnosis of mental illness (by itself) fails to provide information on a persons’ pattern of positive psychological experiences and events. It would be erroneous to imply that negative affect is synonymous with disorder and positive affect with health. There is evidence that some degree of negativity is fundamental to healthy personal and social functioning. This includes work suggesting an optimal mean ratio of positive to negative emotions during (1) everyday life that differentiates people who are and are not flourishing (Fredrickson & Losada, 2005) and (2) marital conflict that differentiates people who are at low and high risk for divorce (Gottman, 1994).
The experience and expression of negative affect can often be a direct route to intimacy development, successful problem-solving efforts, and persistence toward difficult goals. Other work suggests the presence of non-linear relations between affect and adaptive outcomes. For example, excessive, uncontrollable, or culturally unacceptable positive experiences are a feature of pathologies such as manic episodes, impulsive disorders, and paraphilias. As another example, in moderation, feelings of guilt can inhibit morally questionable behavior and promote prosocial behavior. A full discussion of these dynamic relations is beyond the scope of the current paper. Nonetheless, existing data provide evidence for the psychological and social benefits of frequent positive affect, curiosity, and exploratory tendencies (Kashdan & Fincham, 2004; Lyubomirsky, King, & Diener, 2005). In this article, a theoretical and empirical rationale is provided for excessive social anxiety as a factor that interferes with the experience of two dimensions of psychological health: positive affect and curiosity. A fundamental component in judgments of well-being is the frequency and intensity of pleasant emotions such as joy and gratitude.
Positive affect makes life enjoyable and also serves to increase psychological flexibility, sustain coping and thriving efforts, build social bonds, and counter the adverse physiological and psychological effects of negative emotions (Lazarus, 1993; Fredrickson, 1998). Construing positive emotions as evolutionarily adaptive, Fredrickson (1998) emphasizes their role in broadening and strengthening intrapersonal (cognitive, physical) and interpersonal resources. Data on the structure of well-being find that positive affect (a core marker of hedonic well-being or the presence of pleasure and life satisfaction)m is positively related, but distinct from curiosity and other indices of psychological well-being (Kashdan, 2002, 2004; Keyes, Shmotkin,&Ryff, 2002). As an illustration of the different functions of positive affect such as joy from curiosity, imagine a person ordering a meal at a restaurant. The person feeling joy is likely to order a dish they liked in the past. whereas the person feeling curious is likely to try a new and unique dish. Curiosity is a pleasant, appetitive state wherein people recognize, seek out, and want to investigate new information and experiences.
Curiosity motivates people to explore and persist in the activity that initially stimulated their interest (Izard, 1977). When people feel curious, they thrive on novel and challenging interactions with the world, with exploratory behavior inevitably leading to an expansion of knowledge, skills, and resources. The essence of living a satisfying and meaningful life is the ability to flexibly adapt to different contexts such that curiosity for rewarding and challenging activities is satisfied and anxiety for reasonably dangerous activities is heeded. For particularly (socially) anxious people, feelings of anxiety and escape tendencies are expected to be the default response to stimuli perceived as novel or challenging. Consequently, curiosity and exploration may be thwarted. Over time, an accumulation of unfulfilled desires and rewards is expected to have considerable psychological costs (e.g., stagnation in work, leisure, and cognitive abilities; social cocoon).
Recent advances suggest that (1) positive and negative affects are negatively related but independent, (2) there are instances when pleasure and displeasure are experienced simultaneously, (3) in the absence or minimal existence of threat, people tend to be interested and exploratory (Cacioppo & Berntson, 1994), and (4) certain negatively valenced conditions interfere with the experience of positive affect and psychological well-being. Despite these advances, studies with clinical samples have yet to examine the nature of mixed feelings or examine linear and non-linear relations with components of psychological well-being. Moreover, the relation of social anxiety to hedonic and psychological wellbeing has been particularly neglected relative to other clinical conditions (e.g., depression and schizophrenia). To address this gap, the theoretical and empirical relation of social anxiety with positive affect and curiosity was examined. Theoretical rationale for studying social anxiety and positive experiences Why might social anxiety inhibit positive experiences?
Elements of several theoretical models of social anxiety can be synthesized to provide a theoretical rationale (Baumeister & Tice, 1990; Clark &Wells, 1995; Gilbert, 2001; Leary, 2000), with additional attention to a self-regulatory perspective of psychopathology (Widiger & Trull, 1991). Social anxiety is arguably a component of the biologically based avoidance system, designed to alert and protect against possible social rejection. To be accepted, people need to impress upon others that they are a worthy social investment. People who are attractive (physically and psychologically), socially desirable (e.g., intelligent, interesting), competent, and responsive to conventional social group norms are considered a worthy investment of time, energy, and resources (Baumeister & Tice, 1990; Gilbert, 2001). These characteristics are evaluated by other people; thus, to some degree, a person’s social worth is unstable and uncontrollable. Consequently, social anxiety can be triggered by concerns about making a favorable impression on others, beliefs that one will be unable to do so, and appraisals of social danger.
People with greater social anxiety are extremely reactive to social threat cues (Gilboa-Schechtman, Foa, & Amir, 1999; Stein, Goldin, Sareen, Zorrilla, & Brown, 2002), report biased estimates of the probability and danger of various social events (Foa, Franklin, Perry, & Herbert, 1996), and consistently underestimate their social performance and overestimate the visibility of anxiety (e.g., Wallace & Alden, 1997). These information-processing biases appear to exacerbate anxiety, self-presentation concerns, and the use of avoidance coping strategies (Clark & Wells, 1995). Studies have also shown that a subset of socially anxious people externalize their anger, engage in aggressive and selfish behaviors, and are boastful and egotistical as a means to gain approval or prevent rejection (Erwin, Heimberg, Schneier, & Liebowitz, 2003; Kachin, Newman, & Pincus, 2001; Vohs, Baumeister, & Ciarocco, 2005). These seemingly paradoxical, uninhibited behaviors are proposed to differ in content from over-regulated avoidance behaviors but the functional goal is the same: to avoid the experience of anxiety or the likelihood of rejection.
Anxiety and social activity are ubiquitous and in lieu of a hermit-like existence, are virtually unavoidable in everyday life. Theoretically, it would be emotionally and physically draining to be hyper-focused on the control, fear, and avoidance of these natural and frequent internal and external events. At any given point in time, people have a limited supply of physical energy, attentional, and self-regulatory resources (Muraven & Baumeister, 2000;Widiger & Trull, 1991). Researchers have found support for the notion that self-regulatory skills are a limited resource and too much exertion weakens one’s abilities to be effective in subsequent tasks. This limited resource model is of relevance to understanding the psychological health of people with excessive social anxiety. Several studies by Vohs et al. (2005) found a cyclical relation such that depleting self-regulation in a given task reduces the ability to effectively engage in impression management, and effortful impression management drains and impairs self-control in successive demanding tasks. The paradox is that excessive attempts to make a positive impression, be less anxious, and avoid rejection lead to a depletion of the necessary self-control resources to effectively prevent socially undesirable behaviors.
This includes inappropriately self-disclosing intimate details, being unresponsive to the feelings and interests of social interaction partners, and being increasingly physiologically aroused and anxious (e.g., Gross, 1998; Vohs et al., 2005). Besides fearing and avoiding social situations, there is growing recognition that people can also fear and avoid socially anxious thoughts, images, feelings, and bodily sensations (experiential avoidance; Hayes, Wilson, Gifford, Follette, & Strosahl, 1996). When this happens, the feared stimulus cannot be easily avoided as these anxious reactions derive from within. When fears span the anticipation, experience, and aftermath of social interactions, or any period of internal processing about one’s social attractiveness, activity, and functioning, there are abundant opportunities to deplete limited regulatory resources.With this broadened scope of feared situations, it is easy to imagine how excessive social anxiety may interfere with curiosity and positive experiences during social and non-social events. In addition, routinely acting in ways to alter, control, and avoid anxiety before, during, and after perceived social situations out of fear of experiencing anxiety, may play a formative role in how excessive social anxiety eventually erodes regulatory resources and positive outcomes.
Of particular concern is the degree to which life choices are made to alter and avoid anxiety and the situations that might evoke them at the expense of living in congruence with personal values and strivings (Forsyth, Eifert, & Barrios, 2006). In this model, important determinants of the diminished positive outcomes of socially anxious people include the degree to which anxious reactions are viewed as harmful, how they are tolerated, and the efforts undertaken to regulate them. The existence of satisfying social interactions and relationships is the most distinguishing characteristic of very happy people (Diener & Seligman, 2002; Myers & Diener, 1995).
When adults are asked to retrospectively examine their lives, the greatest source of satisfaction and meaning tends to be social relationships (Sears, 1977). Socially anxious people are confronted with an approach-avoidance conflict between desiring these social outcomes and fears that (a) rejection is inevitable and (b) socializing will cause unwanted anxious feelings, thoughts, and sensations. In response, people with greater social anxiety are more likely to deplete their self-regulatory resources during rigid attempts to control and conceal anxious thoughts (e.g., Amir, Foa, & Coles, 1998; Fehm & Margraf, 2002) and the expression of positive and negative emotions (Kashdan & Steger, 2006; Turk, Heimberg, Luterek, Mennin, & Fresco, 2005). The motivation to avoid anxiety and rejection at the expense of cultivating positive experiences and social relationships can lead to an insulated and depleted existence. The current study
Theory and data support an examination of social anxiety as a predictor of diminished positive affect and curiosity. The prior theoretical synthesis provides an initial framework of how excessive social anxiety might lead people to incur deficits in positive experiences. The model suggests a series of causal sequences among social anxiety, self-regulatory processes, and diminished positive experiences. However, an initial link needs to be established. In this paper, analyses were confined to whether the social anxiety spectrum was related to positive affect and curiosity. The present study was the first quantitative review, using meta-analytic techniques, aggregate studies on relations between the social anxiety spectrum and positive experiences. Three main questions were addressed. First, to what extent was the social anxiety spectrum (inversely) related to positive affect and curiosity? Second, possible moderators of these relations were investigated, including operationalizing social anxiety as a continuum or the presence/absence of disorder (SAD) and research methodology.
Positive affect and curiosity were examined as dispositional traits (personality questionnaires) and emotional states manipulated in experiments or recorded with diary methods. Of interest was whether meta-analytic relations differed for short-term momentary experiences of positive emotions and curiosity (states) compared to cumulative long-term patterns (traits). Third, meta-analyses of specificity tests were conducted. That is, the mean effect size of relations between the social anxiety spectrum and positive experiences after statistically controlling for other negative affective conditions (e.g., depressive symptoms and disorders).
Several theoretical models of anxiety and depression suggest that general negative affect is common to both conditions whereas diminished positive affect and engagement in pleasant events are limited to depression (Clark & Watson, 1991; Davidson, 1994). Despite support for the distinction between general anxiety conditions and depression (e.g., Burns & Eidelson, 1998; Clark, Steer, & Beck, 1994; Watson et al., 1995), there has been only peripheral attention as to whether diminished positive experiences differentiate depression from the social anxiety spectrum. The vast majority of studies testing this model (which includes somatic arousal as the anxiety specific factor) did not assess social anxiety. The meta-analytic tests were conducted as an initial step of the more comprehensive theoretical framework outlined.
If one wants to learn, he should think positively. He should put into his mind that every time he learns something, he grows and takes another step toward reaching his goals. Another one is the attitude of the learner. He should ask himself. “Do I want to learn?” If the answer is yes, according to Quibol, it is expected that the learner will have to do everything he thinks may help him achieve the learning he wants. Learning usually takes place in the classroom with the motivation and guidance of the teacher. However, it should be noted that the learning achieved in the school needs to be supplemented through home study, hence the teachers should have to develop among their pupils good study habits. Some pupils are amazingly successful at study. They get their work done on time and they earn good grades. This is so because they have the best intention and they establish conditions and behavior that facilitate study. Quibol, suggested some pointers on how to study effectively:
1. Draw up a study schedule.
2. Follow your schedule conscientiously
3. Determine your amount of study hours.
4. Determine individual “units” of study.
5. Study with all the concentration you can matter.
6. Keep your notes for one subject altogether.
7. Save a designated study area.
8. When you study, be comfortable; yet avoid being too comfortable
9. Provide proper lighting in your place of study.
10. Remove or minimize visual distractions.
11. Study with proper attitude.
Landy also suggests some tips on how to study effectively:
1. Watch your physical health. Sufficient sleep and exercise are not luxuries to pamper your flesh. They are indispensable if you wish to maintain the physical condition necessary for progress in studies. 2. Study in orderly surroundings. Do your best to keep your desk tidy, with ample lighting. Heaps of disordered books are usually the sign of a disordered mind. Do not try to study while lolling in bed or sprawling on a couch, and shun avoidable distractions. You cannot carry on a conversation, have one ear on our radio, and study at the same time. This does not mean that conversation and radio are taboos, only that they do not mix with study. Whatever you do, do with undivided attention. 3. Use the help your teachers are paid to give. Part of the teacher’s job is to give guidance to students. Do not be afraid to ask for it. Just be sure that before seeking such help you prepare yourself.
Your questions should be specific, not reargue and also ones to which you have tried to find the answer on your own. Never ask a teacher simply to repeat an explanation that was given in class. Make clear exactly what part of the explanation you have failed to grasp. 4. Go over written assignments. When a written assignments or a quiz is corrected and returned, do not just glance at your grade and toss the paper in the trash. Find out where you went wrong and where you hit the bull’s eye. Remember that such assignments are often previous of the final examination and comments in the margin are keys to our teacher’s way of thinking. 5. Foster a positive attitude towards all your studies, one way of developing good study habits and independent work among students, according to naungayan, is through effective assignment. The assignment is chief means of stimulating and directing learning activities inside or outside the classroom. It helps in creating favorable attitudes toward the task to be done. Pupils take pride in their accomplishments, which serves to motivate the students to do better.
One of the strategies employed by teachers in teaching is the independent study approach. This is strategy also promotes the developments of “self-teaching” skills and worthwhile habits of work and study. According to salandanan, it is because independent study enables a student to undertake an in-depth investigation of an area of interest. It is intended to provide a unique leaning experience not normally achieved. Through class-directed strategies. It takes into consideretaion the ability of the students to work independently as well as their strong feeling of confidence and accountability. Efficient study habits should be cultivated in order to strengthen learning and improve retention. According to Aquino and Razon, there are important determinants of effective study: 1. The Learner’s set. The word “set” refers to the student’s attitude or predisposition toward the work, his intentions and his expectations. One who sees that the learning of certain material is related to the attainment of his goal has a more favorable attitude toward studying that material and makes a greater effort to remember it than one who does not recognize its relevance.
The very act of wanting and trying to remember something because one sees the value of doing so is a prerequisite of successful study. 2. Time and place for studying. Most books and lectures on the techniques of studying begin by stressing the importance of the student’s having a definite place and time for this purpose. During regularly scheduled study periods, a child can work in the library, study hall or his own classroom in an atmosphere, which should be conducive to learning. If it is all possible, the student should have a place of his own at home where he can study, — a comfortable place, quiet and free from distractions, with all the necessary tools handy so that he does not have to waste time assembling them. Budgeting one’s time may pose a greater problem than locating an appropriate place for studying. High school and college students who have greater freedom and responsibility and the matter of using time wisely, are advised to draw and follow a day-to-day schedule which includes not only specified amounts of time but specific hours to be spent on each subject. 3. Distribution of practice. Distributed or spaced learning refers to practice or drill, which is spread over several short sessions. Undistributed or massed learning refers to that which is concentrated in fewer but longer periods.
Almost without exception, studies of relative effects of space and concentrated practice demonstrate the superiority of the former. With motor, as well as, conceptual learning and with meaningful, as well as, nonsense material, the evidence suggests that the shorter the study period, the better the results, provided of course that the practice session is not too short. The most efficient length and spacing of study sessionals depend, of course, on the nature of material and the maturity of the learner. Experimental evidence, however, supports the following generalizations and recommendations: shorter study periods are more effective for younger than the older pupils; new materials should be introduced in small, easy doses with short initial practice periods fairly close together in a gradual lengthening of the time between such periods; when the material is highly significant, when an extended warm-up or depth of concentration is necessary or when the students are relatively bright, longer periods are recommended; when a large amount of material is to be learned, when motivation is low and the subject is not particularly interesting, when a large number of errors are likely to occur, when the task is fairly difficult and the students are not specially brilliant, shorter sessions are prepared.
4. Overlearning. It is the repetition continued beyond the point of initial mastery or bare comprehension of a task. Its purpose is to produce a high degree of retention. Overlearning is achieved through drill rather than practice. The distinction between these two is not always clearly understood. Practice refers to the repetition of an act in order to bring about a desired change in behavior. Drill refers to the repetition of an act in order to give permanence to the new way of acting. 5. Attempted recall. Attempted recall or self-recitation is a more economical use of one’s study time than rereading. Self-recitation may take a number of forms, depending upon the type of material to be learned. For example, in studying french, the student might cover the English translations of the words on his vocabulary list and test his ability to recall them. A somewhat more elaborate scheme is the “Survey Q3R” method of study, which includes five steps: survey, question, reading, recitation and review. The student begins his reading assignment by glancing quickly through the chapter, noting its main heading or divisions. He formulates for himself a few questions about each of these main points. He reads the book until he is satisfied that he has answers to these questions. Then he recites to himself, testing his knowledge of the subject.
Finally he reviews the entire lesson, relating the subheadings to the main topic and his questions and answers to one another. Attempted recall helps to concentrate the learner’s attention and makes him a more active participant in the learning process. It requires him to practice instead of simply to stare at the page to which his book happens to be open. It helps the learner to identify and correct his errors, gives him immediate goals to work for, and keeps him informed of his progress. 6. Whole and part method of studying. In a series of ten experiments on the whole and part method of studying, Jensena du Lemaire found no consistent pattern of superiority of one over the other. About one-third of the subjects learned better by one method or the other. For about two-thirds of the students, the method they used made no significant difference. (When the whole method is employed, the entire block of material is studied as a unit. When the part method is used, the material is divided into sections, each of which is studied one at a time)
Theoretically, the principal advantage of the whole method is that it facilitates the student’s acquisition of an overview or a general understanding of the material to be learned. It helps him to perceive relationships among segments of the lessons and tends to make them mean more to him than they would when he studied piecemeal. The whole method, however, may be discouraging ot the student who works for a long period of time without seeing that his efforts pay any dividends. When the part method is used, the feeling that he is making progress comes sooner, and he can experience success as he attains each of his intermediate sub goals. The part method however, is supposed to ensure mastery of each of the components of the unit. Generally speaking, it may be said that the whole method is probably more effective with the brighter and more mature students, especially when the material to be learned is comprehensible and important to them; younger students, slow learners and average students who are learning material which is not well organized will probably find the part more advantageous.
From this review of related local literature, it is highly related to our present study on the conclusion that the development of efficient study habits in the students is a must. It is because learning is self-development through self-activity. The students should know how to learn, how to be independent in studying, how to be self-directed so that they will be equipped with skills needed to deal with their schoolwork and with their ever-changing environment. No person can give the learner an education. Only she/he, can. The teacher is there to guide her/him perhaps to goad, centainly to give a hand when needed. Books and equipments are indispensable tools which the learner must learn to use properly. But all these are incidental. The essential educator is the learner.
Figure 1. Present the conceptual framework of this study. As shown in the pardigm, the inputs of the study were the profiles of the respondents, their anxiety levels, and their performance level. To be able to achieve the intended purpose of this study, analysis of the input data was employed. As a whole, this research envisioned to come up with an empirical basis for the researcher to design an instructional development on how social anxiety affects the academic performance of grade 7 high school students of Hermano Miguel Integrated School.
Proposed Guideline to reduce the students from Social Anxiety Proposed Guideline to reduce the students from Social Anxiety 1. Handing out of questionnaires
2. Securing of the 1st – 3rd quarter grades
3. Analyzing of results
4. Handing out of questionnaires
5. Securing of the 1st – 3rd quarter grades
6. Analyzing of results
This chapter discusses the research methodology used by the researchers used by the researchers in describing the effects of social anxiety on the academic performance of the Grade 7 high school students of Hermano Miguel Integrated School. It includes the research locale, sampling, instrumentation and statistical treatment. Research Design
In order to achieve the purpose of this study the descriptive research design was employed to determine the Social Anxiety level of Grade 7 high school students. The Social Anxiety level of the Grade 7 high school students in Hermano Miguel Integrated School – Noveleta, Cavite was identified through qualitative descriptions of the general characteristics of the group. To analyze and to draw out the causes of their existing adjustment difficulties, questionnaire was utilized for gathering the needed data. Research Locale
This study made by the researchers was conducted at Hermano Miguel Integrated School, Noveleta, Cavite.
The researchers made use of the questionnaire as the primary tool for gathering data. The quetionnaire is a list of planned written questions, intended for the distribution to a number of properly selected respondents to supply the necessary information to complete a research study. 1st-3rd Quarter Report Card of the Respondents
The grades were based in:
These data gathering instrument were used in the evaluation of the proposed expanded remediation of how anxiety can affect senior high school students. This is a researcher-made questionnaire which was made upon the consultation with the researcher’s adviser and several references. The questionnaire contained inquiries about the causes and affects of anxiety in adolescents. For the purpose of describing the results verbally, the researcher used a five-point
To interpret the results, the following scale was used:
4.50 – 5.00Strongly Agree
3.50 – 4.49Somewhat agree
2.50 – 3.49Undecided
1.50 – 2.49Somewhat Disagree
1.00 – 1.49Strongly disagree
The researchers decided to use random sampling which is the most commonly used method in which each participating respondent was given an equal chance of being selected for the study. Only fifty (50) Grade 7 students were selected to participate in the study.
Respondents of the Study
The respondents of the study are Grade 7 high school students of Hermano Miguel Integrated School. The researchers chose the Grade 7 students because most of them are new.
This study utilized the following statistical formulae to aid in the analysis of gathered data: 1. Relative Frequency – the ratio of the number of times a value of the data occurs in the set of all ooutcomes to the number of all outcomes. The formula is: f
RF = n x 100
Where: f = frequency
n = total number of cases
RF = relative frequency
100 = constant
2. Arithmetic mean – the value obtained by dividing the sum of a set of quantities by the number of quantities in the set. It is also called average. The formula is: n
X = Σfd
Where: n = total number of respondents
d = midpoint
f = frequency
x = Arithmetic Mean
Σ = summation