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Pharaoh Date (BC) Highlights of the reign

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Amenhotep IIINebmaatre 1387-49 路 Egypt’s economy booms, wealth coming from international trade and gold-mining路 Reign characterised by a burst of magnificent building projects and artistic achievement路 The Great Royal Wife Tiye, daughter if Yuya and Thuya plays a prominent role in reign路 Diplomacy and marriage feature in foreign policy. Only one campaign to Nubia reported

Akhenaten(Amenhotep IV)Neferkheperure Wa’enre 1349-33 路 The cult of Aten the Sun disc, established as the state religion, replacing that of Amun of Thebes路 The state capital moved to Akentaten, where a new city is built路 The Great Royal Wife Nefertiti seems to wield unprecedented power as queen, and possible co-regent路 All forms of art characterised by a revolutionary new style

SmenkhkareAnkhkheperure 1335-33 路 Everything about this pharaoh is subject to controversy: sex, identity, length of reign, spouse, tomb路 Reign sees the beginning of the return to orthodoxy

TutankhamunNebkheperure 1333-24 路 An interim reign featuring aspects of both Amarna and traditional religious and artistic forms 路 Egypt’s political capital returns to Memphis; Thebes re-established as centre of the state cult of Amun路 Extensive building work carried out at the temples at Karnak and Luxor

AyKheperkheperure 1324-21 路 A brief reign that continues the re-establishment of traditional religious and secular practises

HoremhebDjeserkheperureSetepenre 1321-1295 路 Consolidation of prior moves to re-establish traditional practises.路 Dismantling of Aten temples at East Karnak; desecration of the Amarna Royal Tomb and Ay’s tomb possibly carried out at this time路 Reorganisation of the state路 Foundations laid for 19th Dynasty

Ramesses IMenpehtyre 1295-94 路 A very brief reign that establishes the 19th聽Dynasty路 Co-regency with son, Seti I

Seti IMenmaatre 1294-79 路 Art, architecture and culture reach new heights, a return to 18th dynasty standards of excellence 路 Resurgence of aggressive military activity in Asia, Lybia and Nubia路 Emphasis places on many military gods, particularly Osirus

Ramesses IIUsermaatre 1279-13 路 One of the longest reigns- 67 years- and most prosperous路 Construction of the unprecedented numbers of temples, colossal statues, and obelisks; Memphis rejuvenation program路 Foreign policy dominated by confrontation with the Hittites, finally resulting in mutually agreed peace and diplomatic marriage.路 Libyan threat to stability in the Delta contained by garrisons路 Capital re-established in the Delta at Pi-ramesse, modern Tel el-Dab’a

Building programs

Tutankhamun

路 Though only ruling 9 years, building program more extensive than is realised

路 He appears to have begun a tomb for himself but his untimely death probably caused him to occupy a tomb that was nearing completion for Ay

路 Tutankhamun’s restoration stela refers to the rebuilding of temples neglected during his predecessors reign

路 Restored damaged 6th pylon and built two temples (testified by name of one of these; “Mansion of Nebkheperure, beloved of Amun, who sets Thebes in order”) of his own

路 Responsible for reliefs of the Opet festival adorn the halls of the Temple of Amun at Luxor

Smenkhkare

路 Recently identified addition to the great palace at Akhetaten appears to have been built as a mark of his coronation

路 Bricks of the room all bore the name Ankhkheperure (his throne name)

路 A graffito (An ancient drawing or inscription scratched into a surface) from a Theban tomb refers to a priest attached to the ‘Temple of Ankhkheperure’, so he apparently had a mortuary temple.

Ay

路 Began a tomb in the Western Valley of the Kings; tomb not complete at the time of his death

路 His name and that of his queen Tey were hacked out of tombs wall paintings probably in the reign of Horemheb

路 Continued Tutankamun’s restoration work, allowed predecessors names to remain on a complete temple, even adding to Tutankamun’s figures and cartouches.

路 His temple later dismatled by Horemheb. Used it as fillings for his pylons at Karnak

路 Temple later usurped by Horemheb

路 Built a rock-cut shrine at Akhmim, which unlike his other monuments does not appear to have been defaced

路 Probably built a structure at Abydos, the cult centre of Osiris, according to a stela located in the louvre

路 Small rock-cut shrine also built in Nubia

Horemheb

路 Building program not important for his architecture but for historical significance

路 His second, ninth and tenth pylons at Karnak were filled with the talatat from Akhenaten’s East Karnak temples which he dismantled

路 In recycling them he unwittingly preserved many details of early years of his hated predecessors

路 The stela erected by the tenth pylon at Karnak gives valuable details of his administration of Egypt and his methods of dealing with corrupt officials within the bureaucracy, army and judiciary

路 Horemheb’s royal tomb was located in the Valley of the Kings but it is recently discovered he built one at Saqqara before becoming a pharaoh

路 Discovery of the tomb led to discovery of others giving important insight into administration at Memphis during the New Kingdom

Ramesses I

路 Began work on the Hypostyle Hall at Karnak when he died and was buried in an unfinished tomb

路 Erected a stela dedicated to Mut at Wadi Halfa in Sinai, where he had sent a turquoise-mining expedition

Seti I

路 His tomb is one of the most well known monuments

路 His greatest achievement perhaps the temple built at Abydos. Behind its columned hall are seven chapels, each dedicated to a different god: Osiris,聽Isis, Ptah, Amun, Re-Horakhty, Horus and himself as a god. Behind this is a sanctuary dedicated to Osiris

路 This temple is of particular historical significance as it’s a so-called ‘hall of records’ contains a relief depicting Seti and his young son Ramesses worshipping the cartouches of their ancestors.

路 He disapproved of female rulers and Amarna kings as neither is shown

路 Like his father Seti ensured many gods were honoured in addition to Amun

Ramesses II

路 Ramesses II carved his cartouche on many monuments, including those he built himself and those he usurped

路 By replacing the names of other pharaohs with his own he claimed these buildings as his own constructions

路 As well as completing his grandfathers Hypostyle Hall at Karnak and his fathers temples at Abydos and Thebes he built the Ramesseum in Western Thebes.

路 He added a courtyard, pylon and obelisks to the front of the Luxor temple thus suggesting he built all that lay behind it. He did the same to Setis Abydos temple. Blocking up seven entrance ways with long text glorifying his own achievements

路 Built several temples in Nubia

路 Most impressive temple is a pair carved out of the mountainside at Abu Simbel.

路 Built a tomb in the valley of the kings

路 New capital Pi-ramesse in the Delta

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