- Pages: 8
- Word count: 1958
- Category: Hygiene
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* ORAL CARE – the practice of keeping the mouth and teeth clean to prevent dental problems, most commonly, dental cavities, gingivitis, and bad breath.
* MOUTH – the first portion of the alimentary canal that receives food.
* PALATE – the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals. It separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity.
* LIPS – visible body part at the mouth of humans and many animals and serve as the opening for food intake and in the articulation of sound and speech.
* TEETH – small, calcified, whitish structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of manyvertebrates and used to break down food.
* TONGUE – a muscular hydrostat on the floors of themouths of most vertebrateswhich manipulates food formastication.
* PLAQUE – a biofilm (formed by colonizing bacteria trying to attach themselves to the tooth’s smooth surface.), usually a pale yellow, that develops naturally on the teeth.
* GUM – The firm connective tissue covered by mucous membrane that envelops the alveolar arches of the jaw and surrounds the bases of the teeth. Also called gingiva.
* ENAMEL – one of the four major tissues that make up the tooth in vertebrates. It is also the normally visible dental tissue of a tooth
II. PRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN ORAL CARE
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Know the different parts and functions of the hand in relation to the procedure.
Oral care reduces the promotion of microorganism growth due to the food particles left in the mouth. PSYCHOLOGY
Knowledge about the technique of keeping the mouth healthy helps in practicing it and maintains health.
Good interaction between patients and health care provider.
SAFETY & SECURITY
Patient comfort and safety may be enhanced by practice of good technique, which provides economy of time, materials and energy.
III. IMPORTANCE OF ORAL CARE
Prevention is always better than treatment. Good oral hygiene habits will 1. keep away most of the dental problems saving you from toothaches and costly dental treatments. The interesting part is that it can be achieved by dedicating only some minutes every day to dental hygiene care. A large number of various oral hygiene products, beyond the usual toothpaste and toothbrush, are available in the market to help you in this effort. Unfortunately, most of us remember the importance of oral hygiene instructions only when a problem occurs. Research has shown that while patient activation can show an immediate improvement in oral hygene habits, only a small percentage keeps the same standards six months later.
Maintaining good dental hygeine should be a lifelong everyday habit. Awareness regarding the importance of oral hygiene has significantly increased in the developed countries, but contrary to that, the modern dietary lifestyle habits are posing a greater risk for oral health. 2. Enable you to look and feel good, they make it possible to eat and speak properly. Good oral health is important to your overall well-being. Daily preventive oral care, with proper brushing and flossing. 3. Will help stop dental problems before they develop and are much less painful, expensive, and worrisome than treating conditions that have been allowed to progress.
IV. KINDS OF ORAL CARE
* Teeth Whitening – Also called “teeth bleaching” can brighten and whiten your teeth from discoloration and / or staining. This procedure can be done in the dental office or at home. Not everyone’s teeth can be bleached, so it is very important to check with your dentist first.
* Veneers – Veneers are a thin shell made out of porcelain or composite material. They are custom made and cemented to the front side of the tooth. A veneer can be used to treat dental conditions such as a slightly crooked tooth, discolored teeth, chipped teeth or even to cover spaces in between the teeth.
* Implants – A dental implant is a metal device designed to replace missing teeth. The device is usually made out of titanium and is surgically placed into the jawbone where the tooth is missing. Unlike a dental bridge, an implant is permanent. A dental implant is designed to act as the tooth root and can anchor an artificial tooth or teeth such as a crown, bridge or denture.
* Crowns – Crowns, also referred to as caps, are custom made to fit over your whole tooth after the dentist has prepared it. They are usually made out of acrylic or porcelain that has been fused to metal, to withstand biting pressure. Crowns can be used in cosmetic dentistry to treat teeth that are poorly shaped, badly decayed, broken or chipped, have had large fillingsand to cover spaces in between teeth.
* Shaping – Also referred to as “enamel shaping” is the process in which the dentist can reshape the tooth by filing or removing some of the enamel. This process is usually not painful and can produce immediate effects.
* Bonding – bonding is the process in which tooth colored materials are adhered (bonded) to the tooth. This is a procedure that can be used to repair or improve the appearance of a tooth that has been badly stained, broken or chipped.
* Orthodontic Treatment – Orthodontics are not just for kids. More and more adults are seeking treatment from orthodontists for cosmetic purposes. If you have buck teeth or crooked teeth, ask your dentist if an orthodontist can help you.
V. GUIDELINES IN PERFORMING ORAL CARE
* keep the oral mucosa clean, soft, moist and intact, thus preventing infection * keep the lips clean, soft, moist and intact
* remove food debris/dental plaque without damaging the gingiva * allieviate pain/discomfort, thus enhancing oral intake
* prevent halitosis and freshen the mouth
* decrease the risk of oral and systemic infection
* increase general well-being
VI. DIFFERENT / COMMON EQUIPMENT USED IN SIMPLE ORAL CARE
* Dental hygienists use this hand-held mirror to see different angles inside of a patient’s mouth. The head of the mirror is round and is a helpful tool for viewing back teeth. The mirror also reflects light on hard to see areas of your mouth making it easier for the hygienist to see. A mouth mirror also makes it easy to move your tongue and cheek out of the way while examining teeth.
Slow Speed Polisher
* Hygienists use this hand-held tool during tooth cleaning appointments. The small, spinning, polishing cup is the final step in cleaning and polishing teeth. This tool covers more of your tooth’s surface easily cleaning below the gum line and even between teeth.
* A disposable saliva ejector helps dentists and dental hygienists control moisture and saliva in a patient’s mouth as they work. This tool acts like a vacuum providing a low volume of suction to remove saliva, blood and other excess liquids to keep your mouth clear as the dentist or dental hygienist works. Dental Burs
* Hygienists use dental burs to fill in cavities or repair breaks and chips on a tooth’s surface. They also help dental hygienists smooth and polish the surface of a tooth, and can help extract the tissue inside of a tooth during a root canal or other restorative process.
* Most dental hygienists use radiograph equipment to view X-rays of their patient’s teeth. X-rays provide the dentist and hygienist with a panoramic view of your mouth. This makes it easier to pinpoint potential problems.
VII. BEGINNING SKILLS IN PERFORMING ORAL CARE
* Use a good toothbrush. Your toothbrush should have soft nylon bristles and a small head. Soft bristles are gentler on your gums and will flex more easily to reach between the teeth while a small head allows you to reach all areas of your mouth. * Wet your toothbrush slightly.
* Squeeze a pea-sized amount of toothpaste onto your toothbrush. Your toothpaste should contain fluoride. If brushing is painful, switch to a toothpaste formulated for sensitive teeth. * Try to concentrate on one tooth at a time. As you go around your mouth, try to focus on one tooth for a few seconds. When that’s done, move on to the next one. * Start with the front of your teeth. Hold the brush so that it’s parallel to your lips, then tilt it upward by about 45 degrees. Start with your top front teeth, and work around each side of your mouth in a back-and-forth circular motion, brushing the outer side of each top tooth.
Move to the bottom row of teeth, and tilt the toothbrush up by about 45 degrees * Brush your molars. Position the toothbrush so that it’s perpendicular to your lips, or so that the bristles are resting on top of your bottom molars. Work the toothbrush in an in-and-out motion, and move from the back of your mouth to the front. Repeat on the other side of your mouth. When the bottom teeth are clean, flip the toothbrush over and work on the top molars. * Brush the “inside” of your teeth. After you’ve brushed the top of your molars, flip the brush so that the bristles are resting along the inner side of one of your back bottom molars.
Angle the bristles toward the gums a bit, and brush each molar, moving from the back of your mouth to the front. Work both sides, top and bottom. * Gently brush your tongue. After you’ve cleaned your teeth, use the bristles of your toothbrush to gently clean your tongue. (Don’t press too hard, or you’ll damage the tissue.) This helps keep bad breath away. * Gently brush your tongue. After you’ve cleaned your teeth, use the bristles of your toothbrush to gently clean your tongue. (Don’t press too hard, or you’ll damage the tissue.) This helps keep bad breath away. * Use mouthwash. Take a small sip of mouthwash, swish it in your mouth, and spit it out. Be careful not to swallow any.
· Take a length of floss about 18 inches long;
· Wrap the ends around the middle fingers of each hand, leaving about 1cm between the fingers. · Either, while holding the floss tightly against the tooth, slide the floss vertically back up the tooth, scraping the film of plaque off the tooth as you go. You may need to go back in and do it a again. · Or, slide the floss up and down, several times, without coming back out via the contact of the teeth. Then let go of the inside end of the floss and gently pull it out sideways. · You will then need to go back into the same space and clean the contacting surface of the next door tooth. · Keep moving your fingers along the floss so you use a fresh bit for each tooth surface · You may wish to rinse after flossing to remove any debris
7.3 CLEANING DENTURES
Cleaning your dentures is easy. It may become tiresome because they should be cleaned after every meal, but keeping them clean will keep the rest of your mouth clean too. Just like natural teeth, you must brush your dentures. You can use a denture brush or a toothbrush. After removing the dentures from your mouth, it is important to get any stains and/or debris off of the teeth using the brush. You can use a denture cream or soap, along with water, to properly clean the dentures. You should also clean your mouth while your dentures are out. Brushing your gums and rinsing with a mouthwash keeps your mouth clean and healthy.