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Observe & Record Aspects of the Development of Child or Young person

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  • Category: Child

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Starts to kick legs, with movement gradually becoming smoother Starts to wave arms about
Being to hold objects when placed in hand, for example an appropriate size/shaped rattle Grasp reflex diminishes as hands and eye co-ordination to develop Enjoys finger play such as simple finger rhymes

Becomes more alert when awake
Learns to roll from side on to back
See best at distance of 25cm then gradually starts watching objects that are further away Needs opportunities to play & exercise, for example soft toys, cloth books & play mate with different textures & sounds COMMUNICATION

INTELLECTUAL Recognises familiar voices; stops crying when hears them Aware of other sounds; turns head towards sounds
Responds to smiles; moves whole body in response to sound / to attract attention Pauses to listen to others; makes noises as well as crying, such as burbling Recognises parents; concentrates on familiar voices rather than unfamiliar ones Aware of different smells

Explores by putting objects in mouth
Observes objects that move; responds to bright colours and bold images Stores and recalls information through images
Sees everything in relation to self ( is egocentric)
BEHAVIOURAL Cries to communicate needs to other; stops crying to listen to others Responds to smiles from other; responds positively to others, such as family members & even friendly strangers unless very upset (when only main caregiver will do!) Considers other only in relation to satisfying own needs for food, drink, warmth, sleep, comfort & reassurance. Becomes very attached to parent / care ( usually the mother) Experiences extreme emotions, may be very scared, very happy or very angry; these moods change in an instant Requires the security & reassurance of familiar routines May be upset by unfamiliar methods of handling & care.

AGE 3-9 M
Establishes head control ; moves head round to follow people & objects Begins to sit with support ; form about 6 months sits unsupported Rolls over
May begin to crawl, stand & cruise holding on to furniture (from about 6 months) Learns to pull self up to sitting position
Begins to use palmar grasp & transfers objects from one hand to the other Develops pincer grasp using thumb & index finger from about 6 months Continues to enjoy finger rhymes
Drops things deliberately & searches for hidden/ dropped objects (from about 8 months) Puts objects into containers & takes them out
Enjoys water play in the bath
Needs opportunities for play & exercise including soft toys, board books, bricks, containers, activity centres, & so on COMMUNICATION
INTELLECTUAL Responds with smiles
Recognises family names, but cannot say them
Enjoys looking at pictures and books
Even more responsive to voices and music
Participates in simple games, such as ‘peep-po’; tries to imitate sounds during rhymes Starts babbling, uses syllable sounds, for example ‘daa’, ‘baa’, and ‘maa’ From about 7 months uses two syllable sounds, such as ‘daada’, ‘baaba’, ‘maama’ Shouts to attract attention

Knows individuals and recognises familiar faces
Recognises certain sounds and objects
Shows interest in everything especially toys and books
Concentrates on well defined objects and follows direction of moving object Anticipates familiar actions and enjoys games such as ‘Peep-po’ Searches for hidden or dropped objects (from about 8 months) Observes what happens at home and when out and about

Explores immediate environment once mobile
Processes information through images
Enjoys water play in the bath
Sees everything in relation to self (is still egocentric)
BEHAVIOURAL Responds positively to others, especially to familiar people such as family members; by the age of 9 months is very wary of strangers Communicates with others by making noises & participating in `conversation-like’ exchanges; responds to own name Begins to see self as separate others.

Has strong attachment to parent / carer (usually the mother) Develops other attachments to people sees regularly
By 6 or 7 months shows clear preferences for familiar adults as can differentiate between individuals Demonstrates strong emotions through body language, gestures & facial expressions Dislike anger in others & becomes distressed by it

Has clear likes & dislikes & will push away food, drink or toys dose not want AGE 9-18 M
PHYSICAL Is now very mobile, for instance crawls, bottom-shuffles, cruises & walks Starts to go upstairs (with supervision) but has difficulty coming down Needs safe environment in which to explore as becomes increasingly mobile, so remember safety gates on stairs, & so on Watches ball rolling towards self & tries to push it back Has mature pincer grasp & can scribble with crayons

Points to objects using index finger
Places one (or more) bricks on top of each other to make a small tower Holds a cup & tries to feed self
Continues to enjoy finger rhymes plus simple action songs.
INTELLECTUAL Continues to imitate sounds; starts jargoning, for example joins up syllables so more like ‘sentences’ such as ‘Maama-baaba-daa’ Learns to first real words, usually the names of animals and everyday things Uses gestures to emphasise word meanings

Uses vocabulary of between 3 and 20 words
Participates in simple finger rhymes; continues to enjoy books Over-extends words, that is uses same word to identify similar objects, such as all round objects are called ‘ball’ Explores immediate environment using senses, especially sight and touch; has no sense of danger Concentrates more, due to curiosity and increased physical skills but still has short attention span Follows one step instructions and / or gestured commands

Observes other people closely and tries to imitate their actions Uses trial and error methods when playing with bricks, containers Searches for hidden or dropped objects (aware of object permanence) Learns that objects can be grouped together

Continues to store and recall information through images
Is still egocentric
BEHAVIOURAL Responds to simple instructions (if wants to!)
Communicates using (limited) range of recognisable words
Shows egocentric behaviour, for example expects to be considered first; & all toys belong to them Is unintentionally aggressive to other children.
Likes to get own way; gets very angry when adult says `NO!’ Has emotional out bursts(`temper tantrums’) when does not get own way or is otherwise frustrated, for example when unable to do activity because of physical limitations Shows fear in new situations, for example attending parent / toddler group or visiting somewhere new such as the farm or nature centre Relies on parent / carer for reassurance & support in situations Is upset by the distress of other children (even if they caused it) Seeks reassurance & contact with familiar adults throughout waking hours. AGE 18-24 M

PHYSICAL Starts using potty/toilet but has difficulty keeping dry Can feed self
Walks well & tries to run but has difficulty stopping
Comes downstairs on front with help
Learns to push a pedal-less tricycle or sit-on-ride toy with feet Tries to throw ball but has difficulty catching
Bends down to pick things up
Uses several bricks to make a tower
As fine motor skills improve continues to scribble & can do very simple jigsaw puzzles enjoys action songs & rhymes Needs space, materials & opportunities to play alongside other children. COMMUNICATION

INTELLECTUAL Uses language to gain information, for example starts asking ‘What dat?’ Repeats words said by adults
Acquires 1 to 3 words per month; by the age of 2 years has a vocabulary of about 200 words Participates in action songs and nursery rhymes; continues to enjoy books and stories Uses telegraphic speech, for example speaks in 2 to 3 word sentences such as ‘Daddy go’ or ‘Milk all gone’ Recognises objects from pictures and books

Points to desired objects; selects named objects
Matches basic colours; starts to match shapes
Does very simple puzzles
Follows one step instructions
Concentrates for longer, perhaps searching for hidden object, but attention span still quite short Shows lots of curiosity and continues exploring using senses and trial and error methods Processes information through images and increasingly through language too Shows preferences and starts to make choices

Is still egocentric
BEHAVIOURAL Responds positively to other, for example plays alongside other children & enjoys games with known adults Communicates more effectively with others; responds to simple instructions Wants to help adults & enjoys imitating their activities May be interested in older children & their activities; imitates these activities May unintentionally disrupt the play of other, for example take toys away to play with by self Becomes very independent, for instance want to do things by self Still demonstrates egocentric behaviour; wants own way & says `No!’ a lot. Begins to disengage from secure attachment & want to do things by self – `Me do it!’ Still emotionally dependent on familiar adults but this leads to conflict as need for independence grows Has mood swings, maybe clingy one moment, then fiercely independent the next Becomes very frustrated when unable / not allowed to do a particular activity which leads to frequent but short-lived emotional outbursts (`temper tantrums’) Explores environment; even new situations are less frightening as long as parent / carer is present. AGE 2-3 Y

PHYSICAL Uses potty/toilet & stays dry more reliably
Comes downstairs in upright position one step at a time
Starts to climb well on play apparatus
kicks a ball, learns to jump & may learn to somersault
Learns to pedal a tricycle
Can undress self ; tries to dress self but needs help, especially with socks & with socks & fastenings Fine motor skills improving: has increased control of crayons & paintbrush ; tries to use scissors Enjoys construction activities & can build more complex structures Continues to enjoy action songs & rhymes

Needs space, materials & opportunities to play alongside and with other children. COMMUNICATION
INTELLECTUAL Has vocabulary of about 300 words
Uses more adult forms of speech, including sentences that now include words like ‘that’, ‘this’, ‘here’, ‘there’, ‘then’, ‘but’, ‘and’ Can name main body parts
Uses adjectives like ‘big’, ‘small’, ‘tall’; and words referring to
relationships, such as ‘I’, ‘my’, ‘you’, ‘yours’ Asks questions to gain more information
Sings songs and rhymes; continues to participate in action songs and enjoy books / stories Can deliver simple messages
Identifies facial features and main body parts
Continues to imitate other children and adults
Follows 2-step instructions
Matches more colours and shapes including puzzles and other matching activities Points to named object in pictures and books
Develops understanding of big and small
Begins to understand concept of time at basic level, such as before/after, today/tomorrow Enjoys imaginative play; able to use symbols in play, for example pretend a doll is a real baby Concentrates on intricate tasks such as creative activities or construction, but may still have short attention span, especially if not really interested in the activity Is very pre-occupied with own activities, still egocentric

Shows some awareness of right and wrong
Processes information through language rather than images.
BEHAVIOURAL Continues to enjoy the company of other
Wants to please & seeks approval from adults
Is still very egocentric & very protective of own possessions; unable to share with other children although may give toy to another child if adult requests it to please the adult May find group experiences difficult due to this egocentric behaviour Uses language more effectively to communicate with others.

May still rely on parent / carer for reassurance in new situations or when with strangers Still experiences emotional outbursts as independence grows & frustration at own limitations continues, for example aggressive towards toys that cannot get to work Begins to understand the feeling of other but own feelings are still the most important Has very limited understanding of other people’s pain, for example when hitting another child
Feels curious about their environment but has on sense of danger that they or other people can be hurt by their actions. AGE 3-5 Y

PHYSICAL Usually clean & dry but may have occasional accidents Able to run well – & stop
Competent at activities involving gross motor skills such as jumping, riding a tricycle, climbing play apparatus & using a swing Throws & catches a ball but is still inaccurate
Fine motor skills continue to improve, for example can use scissors Continues to enjoy action songs plus simple singing & dancing games Needs space, materials & opportunities to play co-operatively with other children. COMMUNICATION

INTELLECTUAL Has vocabulary between 900 and 1,500 words
Asks lots of questions
Uses language to ask for assistance
Talks constantly to people knows well
Gives very simple accounts of past events
Can say names of colours
Begins to vocalise ideas
Continues to enjoy stories, songs and rhymes
Learns about basic concepts through play
Experiments with colour, shape and texture
Recalls a simple sequence of events
Follows 2 or 3 step instructions, including positional ones, e.g. ‘Please put your ball in the box under the table’ Continues to enjoy imaginative and creative play
Interested in more complex construction activities
Concentrates on more complex activities as attention span increases Plays co-operatively with other children, able to accept and share ideas in group activities Shows some awareness of right and wrong, and the needs of others Holds strong opinions about likes and dislikes

Processes information using language.
BEHAVIOURAL Enjoys the company of other; learns to play with other, not just alongside them Uses language to communicate more effectively with others
Develops self-help skills (such as dressing self, going to the toilet) as becomes more competent & confident in own abilities Still wants to please & seeks approval from adults
Observes closely how other behave & imitates them
Still fairly egocentric for own play; expects adult to take their side in any dispute Gradually is able to share group possessions at playgroup or nursery. Less reliant on parent / carer for reassurance in new situations May be jealous of adult attention given to younger sibling or other children in group Has limited awareness of the feeling & needs of others

May be quite caring towards who distressed
Begins to use language to express feelings & wishes
Still have emotional outbursts, especially when tired, stressed or frustrated. AGE 5-7 Y
PHYSICAL Clean & dry but may still have occasional accidents if absorbed in an activity or upset Can dress/undress self but may still need help with intricate fastenings & shoelaces Has improved gross motor skills &co-ordination so is more proficient at running, jumping, climbing & balancing Has some difficulty with hopping & skipping

Has improved bell skills but still learning to use a bat
May learn to ride a bicycle (with stabilisers)
Enjoys swimming activities
Fine motor skills continue to improve : has better pencil /crayon control ; is more competent at handling materials & marking things Continues to enjoy action songs plus singing & dancing games Needs space, materials & opportunities to play co-operatively with other children. COMMUNICATION

INTELLECTUAL May use vocabulary of about 1,500 to 4,000 words Uses more complex sentence structures
Asks even more questions using ‘what’, ‘when’, ‘who’, ‘where’, ‘how’ and especially ‘why’! Develops early reading and writing skills
Continues to enjoy books, stories and poetry; by age 7 can recall the story so far if book read a chapter at a time Shows interest in more complex books and stories; continues to enjoy songs and rhymes Gives more detailed accounts of past events

Vocalises ideas and feelings
Can listen to and follow more detailed instructions; can deliver more complex verbal messages. Is very curious and asks lots of questions
Continues to enjoy imaginative and creative play activities
Continues to enjoy construction activities, spatial awareness increases Knows, matches and names colours and shapes
Follows 3-step instructions
Develops interest in reading for themselves
Enjoys puzzles and games
Concentrates for longer, for example, television programmes, longer stories, and can recall details Shows awareness of right and wrong, the needs of others
Begins to see other people’s points of view
Stores and recalls more complex information using language.
BEHAVIOURAL Enjoys the company of other children; may have special friends Uses language even more effectively to communicate, share ideas, engage in more complex activities Appears confident & competent in own abilities

Co-operates with others, takes turns & begins to follow rules in games Seek adult approval; will even blame others for own mistakes to escape disapproval Observes how other behave & will imitate them; hav a particular role model May copy unwanted behaviour, for example swearing, biting or kicking to gain adult attention. Becomes more aware of the feelings & need of others

Tries to comfort other who are upset, hurt or unwell
May occasionally be aggressive as still learning to deal with negative emotions Uses language to express feelings & wishes
Uses imaginative play to express worries & fears over past or future experiences, such as hospital visits, family disputes, domestic upheaval Has occasional emotional outbursts when tired, stressed or frustrated Argues with other children but may take longer to forgive & forget Confidence in self can be shaken by `failure’

May have an `imaginary friend’.
AGE 7-12 Y
PHYSICAL Can dress/undress self including fastenings & shoelaces Grows taller & thinner ; starts losing baby teeth
Improved gross motor skills & co-ordination lead to proficiency in climbing, running, jumping, balancing, hopping & skipping COMMUNICATION
INTELLECTUAL Has extensive vocabulary of between 4,000 and 10,000 words Uses more complex sentence structures
Develops more complex reading skills, including improved comprehension Develops more complex writing skills, including more accurate spelling, punctuation and joined-up writing Continues to enjoy books, stories and poetry

Gives very detailed accounts of past events and can anticipate future events Vocalises ideas and feelings in more depth
Listens to and follows more complex instructions
Appreciates jokes due to more sophisticated language knowledge Uses literacy skills to communicate and to access information, for example story and letter writing, use of dictionaries, encyclopaedia, computers, the internet, e-mail. Learns to read more complex texts and continues to develop writing skills Enjoys number work, but may still need real objects to help mathematical processes Enjoys experimenting with materials and exploring the environment Develops creative abilities as coordination improves, resulting in more detailed drawings Begins to know the difference between real and imaginary, but still enjoys imaginative play, such as acting out roles, or pretending to be characters from television or films Interested in more complex construction activities

Has longer attention span, does not like to be disturbed during play
activities Follows increasingly more complex instructions
Enjoys board games and other games with rules, also computer games Develops a competitive streak
Has increased awareness of right and wrong, the needs of others Sees other people’s points of view
Seeks information from various sources, such as encyclopaedia, the internet Processes expanding knowledge and information through language. SOCIAL
BEHAVIOURAL Continues to enjoy the company of other children; wants to belong to a group; usually has at least one special friend Uses language to communicate very effectively, but may use in negative ways, by name-calling or telling tales, as well as positively to share ideas & participate in complex play activities, often based on television characters or computer games Is able to paly on own; appreciates own space away from others on occasion Becomes less concerned with adult approval & more concerned with peer approval Is able to participate in games with rules & other co-operative activities. Becomes less egocentric as understands feelings, needs & rights of others Still wants things that belong solely to them, for example is very possessive of own toys, puts own name on everything they possess!

Becomes more aware of own achievements in relation to others but this can lead to a sense of failure if feels does not measure up; hates to lose May be very competitive; rivalry may lead to aggressive behaviour Argues with other children but may take even longer to forgive & forget Has increased awareness of the wider environment, for example the weather, plants, animals & people in other countries. MORAL At this stage a child is starting to know right from wrong but they may still do what they like at times. At time child may find it hard to say sorry when they have done wrong AGE 12-16 Y

Can dress / undress self including intricate fastening & shoelaces Grows taller & thinner; continues losing baby teeth
Physical changes of puberty
Improved gross motor skills & co-ordination lead to proficiency in climbing, running, jumping, balancing, hopping & skipping, swimming
Enjoys team games & sports
Rides a bicycle with competence & confidence
Improved fine motor skills make handwriting & more legible Can do more complex construction activities
Continues to enjoy singing & dancing but often prefers performing set dance routines rather then participating in dance games Needs space, materials & opportunities to play co-operatively with other children. COMMUNICATION

INTELLECTUAL Has extensive and varied vocabulary of between 10,000 and 20,000 words Uses appropriate language styles for different occasions, for example standard English for formal situations Has more complex reading skills, including detailed comprehension skills, and may comment on structure and themes of a book or other piece of writing Has more complex writing skills, including accurate spelling and punctuation; neat and legible joined-up writing Can use different writing styles, including word-processing on a computer Continues to enjoy more complex texts, including fiction, poetry and factual books Reads more complex texts with improved comprehension and extends writing skills Develops understanding of abstract mathematical/scientific processes, such as algebra and physics Continues to enjoy experiments and exploration of the wider environment Develops more creative abilities, which may result in very detailed drawings and stories Knows the difference between real and imaginary

Has increased concentration levels
Continues to follow more complex instructions
Continues to enjoy board games and computer games which require strategy skills Has a competitive streak and may have particular interests which allow them to show off their intellectual abilities, for example chess, computer clubs Has well-defined understanding of right and wrong,; can consider the needs of others Sees other people’s points of view

Continues to seek information from various sources, such as an encyclopaedia or the internet Continues to process increasing knowledge and information through language. SOCIAL
BEHAVIOURAL Continues to enjoy the company of other children / young people; individual friendships are still important; belonging to group or gang becomes increasingly important but can also be a major source of anxiety or conflict The desire for peer approval can overtake the need for adult approval & may cause challenges to adult authority at home, school or in the play setting, particularly in the teenage years. Sensitive to own feelings & those of others, with a growing understanding of the possible causes for why people feel & act as they do Emotional changes due to puberty

Understands issues relating to fairness & justice
Can anticipate people’s reaction & consider the consequences of own actions Is increasingly able to see different viewpoints in order to resolve difficulties in relationships Has confidence in own skill & ideas; is more able to be assertive rather then aggressive or passive May have very strong opinions or beliefs, leading to arguments with adults & peers; may hold grudges & find it difficult to forgive or forget Has more understanding of complex issues concerning the wider environment, such as ethics, philosophy, religion & politics. MORAL

At this stage the child should know right from wrong
They should know the consequences of their action
AGE 16-19 Y
PHYSICAL All the physical developments are complete before 16 years. Physical maturation and features are shaped and defined.
The likelihood of sexual activity is increased.
INTELLECTUAL All the communication developments are complete before 16 years. Teens may not be aware of personal skills and abilities.
Teens may show serious concern about future, integrating knowledge and decision making. Most of intellectual development is complete in 12 to 15 years. SOCIAL
EMOTOINAL BEHAVIOURAL Relationship with parents can either get very friendly or else can go worse. The behavior of teens is very diffrent, they may enjoy activities with the opposite sex or they may completely avoid the opposite sex. The level of physical maturity also varies, this can make them enjoy or make them very uncomfortable. May talk about marriage.

May be strongly interested in single romantic relationships
May appear angry, impulsive, lonely, confused, self cantered, stubborn and moody. May have conflicts in feelings.
Worries about failures and future.
MORAL At this stage the child should know right from wrong
They should know the consequences of their action
They should know to abide by the law

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