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Nursing and Outcome Theorist

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Dorothea Orem received a diploma from the Providence Hospital School of Nursing in Washington, D.C. in 1934 and went on to the Catholic University of America to earn a B.S. in Nursing Education in 1939, and an M.S. in Nursing Education in 1945 from the Catholic University of America, Washington, DC. She earned honorary doctorates in 1976 from Georgetown University, Washington, DC, and in 1980 from Incarnate Word College, San Antonio, Texas (Meleis, 2012, p. 212).| Joyce Travelbee(Interaction Theorist)| Joyce Travelbee received a diploma in nursing from Charity Hospital, New Orleans, a bachelor of science from Louisiana State University, and graduated Yale with a master of science in nursing (Meleis, 2012, p. 262).| Martha Rogers(Outcome Theorist)| Martha Rogers received a diploma in nursing from Knoxville General Hospital School of Nursing, in 1936. She earned a bachelor of science degree from George Peabody College, Nashville, in 1937. She received her Master’s degree in nursing from Teachers’ College in 1945 (Meleis, 2012, p. 315).| Rosemary Rizzo-Parse(Caring/Becoming Theorist)| Rosemary Rizzo- Parse is a graduate of Duquesne University in Pittsburgh and received her master’s and doctorate from the University of Pittsburgh (Nursing Grand Theorists, n.d.).

They all received master degrees in nursing, Orem and Rizzo-Parse went on to receive their doctorates degree. Table.2
Philosophy of Nursing|
Dorothea Orem (Needs Theorist)| Nurses design interventions to provide or manage self-care actions for persons to recover or maintain health (Hartweg, 1991, p. 1).| Joyce Travelbee(Interaction Theorist)| “A nurse does not only seek to alleviate physical pain or render physical care – she ministers to the whole person. The existence of the suffering whether physical, mental or spiritual is the proper concern of the nurse.” J. Travelbee| Martha Rogers(Outcome Theorist)| The identification of the pattern provides knowledge and understanding of human experience. The basic characteristics that describe the life process of human include energy field, openness, pattern, and pan-dimensionality. The basic concepts of the theory include unitary human being, environment, and homeodynamic principles (Rogers, 1989).| Rosemary Rizzo-Parse(Caring/Becoming Theorist)| The person is seen as a participant in situations and nursing’s role is to facilitate the patient making choices in their health experience based on their definitions of health and perception of the situation (McEwen & Wills, 2011, p. 193).

All four theorists look to caring for the person as a whole. Rogers and Rizzo-Parse believed that the patients had to be in tune with this treatment or it wouldn’t work. Table.3 Definition of Nursing
Dorothea Orem (Needs Theorist)| Self-care agency to meet the individual’s need for self-care action in order to sustain life and health, recover from disease or injury, and cope with the effects (Edds, 2012).| Joyce Travelbee(Interaction Theorist)| An interpersonal process between two human beings, one of whom needs assistance because of an illness, and the other who is able to give such assistance (Edds, 2012).| Martha Rogers(Outcome Theorist)| Humanistic science for maintaining and promoting health, preventing illness caring for and rehabilitating the sick and disabled (Edds, 2012).| Rosemary Rizzo-Parse(Caring/Becoming Theorist)| Nursing helps human beings towards becoming through choosing ways of co-creating their own health and finding meanings in situations (Edds, 2012).|

All four theorists believed in promoting the well being of the patient holistically and fully. Rodgers and Rizzo-Parse took it a step further in that they believed that you could prevent illness or create your own health with energy and vibrations. Table.4

Goal/Purpose of Theory|
Dorothea Orem (Needs Theorist)| Three sub-theories: * Self-care deficits * Theory of self-care * Theory of nursing systemsExplicated self-care as a human need. Her theory was developed in an attempt to conceptualize a curriculum for a diploma program (Edds, 2012).| Joyce Travelbee(Interaction Theorist)| Travelbee believed nursing is accomplished through human-to-human relationships that begin with the original encounter and then progress through stages of emerging identities, developing feelings of empathy, and later feelings of sympathy.The nurse and patient attain a rapport in the final stage. For meeting the goals of nursing it is a prerequisite to achieving a genuine human-to-human relationships.This relationship can only be established by an interaction process (Travelbee, 1979).

Martha Rogers(Outcome Theorist)| Referred her theory as a science of unitary beings (central to the discipline of nursing). Advocated that nursing have its own body of knowledge (distinct). Her theory is influenced by her love of futurology, music, philosophy, and physics. Theory influences: general systems theory and electromagnetic theory. She believed that a person was a unitary energy system that was in continuous mutual interaction with the universal energy system. Need to consider the whole person when planning and delivering care (Edds, 2012).| Rosemary Rizzo-Parse(Caring/Becoming Theorist)| Theory is derived from existential-phenomenological views Humanistic approach to nursing. Health is an open process of becoming, an incarnation of man’s choosing. As man and environment connect and separate, health is co-created (Edds, 2012).

All four theorists want to create theories and guidelines that you could look at and use to help the overall well being of your patients. Rogers and Rizzo-Parse seemed to of shared the same concept of the person being a unitary energy system that responded to their environment of the persons choosing, based on their thoughts, actions and beliefs. As I reflect over these four theorists, I would have to say that the one that best suites my own personal philosophy would be Rosemary Rizzo-Parse. I believe that what you eat, drink and what you think will choose your health. I full heartedly believe that you are in control over your health 90% of the time. I do believe that we are energy reflecting certain vibrations depending on our thoughts and beliefs and that you can always increase your vibrations and get better depending on our choice. I also believe that your environment connect and separate your health. If you choose to be around negative people all the time and that becomes a part of your everyday environment then negativity will rise up in your life as well. This could create a whole host of health issues. So as I like all four of these ladies want to provide the best possible care for my patients, I also know that no matter how much education, and care I provide, if they don’t too get in tune with themselves, my work is usually left on the shelves.


Edds, K. (2012) Schools of Thought in Nursing Theories: 1950-1970 [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from https://learn.maryville.edu/d2l/le/content/3139360/viewContent/486424/View Hartweg, Donna (1991). Dorothea Orem: Self-Care Deficit Theory. Notes on Nursing Theories. 4. Sage Publications. pp. 1. Meleis, A.I. (2012). Theoretical nursing development and progress (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. McEwen, M., & Wills, E. (2011). Theoretical basis for nursing (3rd ed.). Philadelpha, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Nursing Grand Theorists, (n.d.) Rosmarie Rizzo-Parse. Retrieved from world wide web on February 2, 2013 from https://sites.google.com/site/shunu530team3/rosemarie-rizzo-parse Rogers, M. E. (1989). An Introduction to the Theoretical Basis of Nursing. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Travelbee, J., & Doona, M. E. (1979). Intervention in psychiatric nursing (2nd. ed). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.

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