Neurodevelopmental and Neurocognitive Disorders Paper
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The neurodevelopmental disorder of autism spectrum (ASD) is defined by the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a sole condition to include syndromes which are formerly regarded as individual, these were autism, asperger syndrome, children’s disintegrative syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2014). The expression spectrum describes the varying ranges of symptoms and severity (2014). Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder consists of the perception and socialization of the diagnosed children with other individuals. The symptoms cause problems in the vital regions of development, social interaction, communication, and conduct (2014). Various children display indications of autism spectrum disorder in initial babyhood. During childhood some could progress as usual for early years of life, but the child may all of a sudden withdraw, become hostile, or linguistic skills begin to get difficult (2014).
Problems with social and interaction signs may be things like will not answer to his or her name being called, does not like being held and will withdraw to their own little world, loss of capability to say words or whole sentences, talk with strange pitches, and does not convey feelings (2014). Behavior criteria for autism spectrum disorder is listed among the Diagnosis and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5), 299.00 autism disorders (TACA, n. d). 1. There has to be greater than six details from 1, 2, and 3, with a minimum of two from 1, and one each from 2 and 3.
1. qualitative impairment in social interaction, as manifested by at least two of the following: 2. marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors, such as eye-to- eye gaze, facial expression, body postures, and gestures to regulate social interaction 3. failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level 4. a lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people (e.g., by a lack of showing, bringing, or pointing out objects of interest) 5. lack of social or emotional reciprocity
2. qualitative impairments in communication, as manifested by at least one of the following: 1. delay in, or total lack of, the development of spoken language (not accompanied by an attempt to compensate through alternative modes of communication such as gesture or mime) 2. in individuals with adequate speech, marked impairment in the ability to initiate or sustain a conversation with others 3. stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language 4. lack of varied, spontaneous make-believe play or social imitative play appropriate to developmental level 3. restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities as manifested by at least one of the following: 1. encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus 2. apparently inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals 3. stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g., hand or finger flapping or twisting or complex whole-body movements)
4. persistent preoccupation with parts of objects (TACA, n. d.) A recent study completed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the rate of an ASD diagnosis is 10 times greater than decade ago (n. a., 2014). At this time, one in every 110 children are likely to have some type of autism (2014). Various professionals are certain this number will consistently increase. The increasing incidence of autism are being documented around the world (n. a., 2014). As of 50 years ago experts have given various theories and carried out many studies referring to the cause for autism spectrum disorder. Various causes have been suggested such as insignificant connection abilities by the mothers (Dryden-Edwards, R., n. d.). Other high risk details for autism are the mothers being older at the delivery of the baby, mother’s use of medication during pregnancy, excess blood loss, and acquiring diabetes during pregnancy (n. d.). Two treatment models for autism spectrum disorder are TEACCH and LEAP. This study was done by the institute of education sciences (R324B070219).
The project purpose was comparing the effectiveness of these comprehensive modes of treatment in preschool adolescents with diagnosed autism (Boyd, B., n. a.). Highly qualified TEACCH and LEAP school rooms for preschoolers were put side by side to each other and control situations assisting preschoolers with ASD (n. a.). Using the TEACCH treatment method they use self-contained school rooms with mature structured learning, school rooms are setup based on autism attributes with special education teachers (n. a.). Using the LEAP treatment method characteristically progressing preschool adolescents are permanent students with naturalist learning processes, school room setup emulates usual childhood settings and co-teaching method of learning is used (n. a.). The phrase neurocognitive disorder is describing cognitive workings directly connected to the operations of specific brain sections, neural routes, or cortical and subcortical systems in the brain (Verghese, J., Holtzer, R., 2010).
The neurocognitive disorder of mild cognitive impairment or (MCI) is defined as an in-between period among the anticipated cognitive degenerating of usual getting older and the more severe regression of dementia (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2014). Problems could include loss of memory, linguistics, reasoning and decision making which are more severe than usual aging changes (2014). An individual realizing he or she has mild cognitive impairment, may become mindful that his or her recall or mental performance has declined somewhat. Individuals with mild cognitive impairment risks can increase for advancing to dementia in the future brought on by Alzheimer’s disease and further neurological situations (2014). Cognitive behaviors may consist of problems that show possible signs of MCI if an individual is experiencing some or all of these behavioral symptoms (2014). Individuals start to frequently forget things like special dates and arrangements, overcome feelings during decision making or trying to accomplish something, trouble coming to and from places you know well, family and people he or she knows start to recognize these changes (2014).
Behavior can also consist of anxiety, becoming depressed and irritable (2014). It is noted that there is no one specific cause for MCI. Present support shows that MCI frequently, though not every time, develops from a minor level of the same modes of brain variations that are in Alzheimer’s disease or various types of dementia (2014). A number of variations were pinpointed during autopsy research of individuals with MCI (2014). Various changes consisted of microscopic protein bunches typical of Alzheimer’s disease, Lewy masses, little strokes or decreased blood movement through the vessels in the brain, decrease in the hippocampus (2014). Currently there is no recognized treatment existing for mild cognitive impairment (Anderson, H., Hoffmann, M., 2014). Cholinesterase inhibitors has not proven to postpone the start of Alzheimer disease or dementia in persons with mild cognitive impairment (2014). Nonetheless, donepezil which is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, did prove to postpone the advancement of Alzheimer disease in mild cognitive impaired individuals who are depressed not affecting his or her signs of depression (2014). Some facts show that cognitive intervention could have a progressive effect (2014).
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