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Job Description and Job Analysis Report

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Mondy (2008) defines Job analysis (JA) as a systematic process of determining the skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing jobs in an organization. The most crucial element in job analysis is the identification of the key sources of information. Job analysis may include: Review of job responsibilities of the current employees

Analysis of duties and tasks of the job
Analysis of already available job descriptions
Key Concepts:
Determines knowledge, skills and abilities
Identifies tasks needed to perform the job
Helps in updating the job requirements
Used in determining training needs
Provides basis for Job Description

Sources of Data for JA: According to the common modes of usage, the following are the usable sources of data to conduct an authentic Job Analysis: Job Analyst: She/he is a person whose core duty is to analyze different types of designations and look into the duties and responsibilities that an employee has to work upon once performing each job. Employee: A primary employee performing the same job for a certain period of time can be a major source of data for the JA. She/he must be able to tell the main duties that have to be performed in the particular area of work. Supervisor: Being the person who has the duty to keep a check on the subordinates performance and efficiency levels, they know all about the technicalities of the particular Job. Hence they can be asked to give detailed insight to the responsibilities. Manager: The manager and supervisor may be the same person in some contexts, but they may be differentiated in bigger organizations. The core manager related to a certain segment of the organization can be a vital source of information regarding the responsibilities associated with the job.

Outside Consultant: An outside consultant is a person that is not from inside the organization, but may know about the concerned Job and the duties to be performed in it. They have an overview of the duties performed by a person working in another organization but on the same designation, thus giving a common industrial picture to a certain job. Existing JDs and JSs: Studying the already used job descriptions and job specifications can give us the work radius of a job. Studying the JD and JS of a competitor firm may as well help us to connect the Job with its Job Analysis. Machinery Manuals (Labor): Another much used way of conducting a Job Analysis in frontline workers (mainly labor) is the detailed study of the machinery manuals that have to be used to carry out the job.

Techniques of Job analysis:
The following are the much used techniques by HR professionals, implemented on the sources of data, to squeeze and screen out information about a certain job, and its responsibilities and to carry out a workable Job Analysis. Questionnaires: This is a much used, common way of gathering useful information on a bigger scale. Devise a questionnaire, distribute it amongst the related work force, and then interpret the results. They may include structured or unstructured questions. Interview: Another way of Job Analysis widely used, this process has variations. The employees are interviewed to analyze the job, and asked questions about the jobs to perform, Activities to handle and health and safety conditions. The interviews may vary in a sample, as Individual, Group Based interviews can be taken. On the other hand the supervisor can be interviewed to answer questions such as minor technicalities and the desirable conditions to do the job.

Diary/Log keeping: This method is scarcely used in modern days, but this includes keeping a diary and a log where an employee has to jot down all the duties that they are performing and the timing to do it. This may not be that accurate because the employees may try to exaggerate their duties. Observation: Observing an employee doing his/her work is another common way, but has its limitations. It is basically observing a relevant employee who is working on the same designation that you are analyzing. But Reactivity is a problem, when an employee changes behavior when they know that they are being observed. Quantitative Job Analysis technique: These are advanced approaches to JA in which we quantify our results. These may include Position Analysis Questionnaire, Functional Job Analysis and Labor Procedure.

Job Description
Job description is a document that provides information regarding the essential tasks, duties, and responsibilities of the job (Mondy. W, 2008). JD is developed based on the information derived from job analysis. It describes the tasks and duties that the individual is expected to do. It is also beneficial in identifying training and development needs for the employee. There are generalized JDs available which can easily be accessed by the organizations. Occupational Information Network (O*Net) provides a useful database for HR managers to formulate job descriptions.

Key Concepts:
It should be concise and relevant
Employee performance is evaluated against the JD
Identifies training and development needs
JD should be flexible to facilitate growth

Job Specification
Job Specification is a document that outlines the minimum acceptable qualification a person should possess to perform a particular job. It should always outline the minimum qualification instead of the ideal qualification required for a job.

Key Elements of JD:

Job Title: The title should reflect the type of work and level of work to be performed. It should be compatible with the industry. Job Summary: Job summary consists of the general tasks to be performed. It is a short paragraph which gives a concise overview of the job. Key Responsibilities: It describes the key functions required by the job and focuses majorly on primary responsibilities. Job Requirements: It describes the minimum skills, competencies and qualifications which are required for the position. These requirements should be clearly mentioned in the job description. Physical requirements: It describes the physical activities required by the job and work conditions e.g. travelling, lifting heavy weights, etc. Disclaimer: A disclaimer should be added in JD which should state that all the duties and responsibilities may differ from those mentioned in JD.

Mondy, W. Human Resource Management: Staffing. Tenth Edition. India: Pearson Education, 2008 “Write effective job descriptions.” Microsoft Office. http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/word-help/write-effective-job-descriptions-HA001189474.aspx “Job Analysis: Overview.” HR Guide. http://www.hr-guide.com/data/G000.htm “A Look at Sensible Job Description Advice.” WordPress. 2009. http://sachiko007western.wordpress.com/

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