Human Growth and Development Theories
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Human growth and development has two separate meanings but are combined are talking about a dynamic process. Growth usually takes place the first twenty years, and development continues on really expands after a person turns twenty. In this paper we will discuss some theories surrounding these aspects. Growth development persist of bone development, size, height, weight, and the development and number of a person’s teeth. Growth rates vary with different times of a person’s life. The growth rate is rapid during the prenatal, neonatal, infancy and adolescent stages and slows during childhood rather than adulthood it is speculated that an adult does not grow anymore. According to Freud’s Psychosexual Development theory has five stages of development; the first stage is called Oral, which occurs from birth to 1 and half years of age and the mouth is the center of exploration because it is where the most senses of pleasure for the infant derives from. Most infants need something for security, and their major conflict or way to show discomfort is weaning. The second stage is called anal and occurs during the age of one and half to three years of age because of anus and bladder self control, which make the major conflict to be toilet training. The last three phases of development according to Freud is Phallic, Latency, and Genital.
Which describes center of pleasure, sexual impulses repressed; and puberty onwards; directs energy towards full sexual maturity and function of skills to cope with the environment. Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development theory have eight stages of development. Erikson’s theories are infancy, early childhood, late childhood, school age, adolescence, young adulthood, adulthood, and maturity. Some of the central tasks are trust vs. mistrust, shame and doubt of self esteem, initiative vs. guilt, industry vs. inferiority, identity vs. role confusion, intimacy vs. isolation, generatively vs. stagnation, and integrity vs. despair. Some of the positive resolutions are learning to trust others, self control without loss of self esteem, and the ability to evaluate and to be assertive. Some children develop a sense of competence and perseverance. Some of the negative effects that occur are avoidance of relationship, career of lifestyle commitments; some might have a sense of confusion, indecisiveness, and possible anti-social behavior. At an earlier stage the child can be defiant, have mistrust, withdrawal, and even estrangement.
One of the worst things that can happen at an age between six to twelve years of age has a better chance at withdrawal from school and peers. Piaget’s phases of cognitive development is different than just theories, it’s pretty simple in which it separates’ the years of life into sections and has different phases in which multiple persons have been researched. Thus at birth to two years of age it has been determined that the sensory organs and muscles become more functional. Whereas when a person is between twelve and eighteen months the person tends to experiment with methods to reach goals. How does a person determine which has the greater influence on their lives, be it hereditary or from the environment around them. One can always say since they were poor that they grew up with other people having a bigger influence in their lives, such as pop stars or the friend that he or she hangs around.
Culture such as Cajuns let heredity influence their lives and the way the raise their children because it is a way of life that has been a tradition for as long as the family has known. Thus tradition and heredity is closely intertwined rather than environment verses heredity. One of the most famous things that are hereditary is the form of religion that the Cajuns must inherit is being catholic and for most this is not a choice but a way of life that is forced from a young age. There is a lot of information to help a person raise a healthy child, but ultimately it is the responsibility of the parent to know what is right or wrong in raising his or her child. For every person there is a right way and wrong way to do things and what might work for some, may not work for others. Breastfeeding or bottle feeding is an example something that might work for one person but not another. Breastfeeding is supposed to promote bonding between the mother and the child, but who’s to say that a mother that bottle feeds is not as close to her child.