- Pages: 7
- Word count: 1568
- Category: Healthy eating
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To investigate the relationship among health literacy and Cardiovascular disease (CVD), Researchers, groups, and studies observed increased rates of childhood obesity as a top responsibility in today’s global world. Recognizing the current concern of overweight and obese juvenile children that may lead up to big health issues as in Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (Schaik, et al., 2017). Different trials used study tools that included forms of health questionnaires to better understand the participant’s knowledge and to see if they comprehend health issues (Patsopoulou, et al., 2015). Two different assessment tools, Feeding Exercise Trial in Adolescents (FETA) and Childhood Obesity Risk Evaluation (CORE) can identify the patterns in young Greek adolescence. Using gender, age, weight, height, and calculating body mass index (BMI) was crucial to the start of how researchers divided children as being healthy and unhealthy (Manios, et al., 2016). Participants that had low to below average scores with understanding CVD has a higher chance of being diagnosed (Schaik, et al., 2017). Education programs need to bear in mind feminine and masculine characteristics in adolescence’s knowledge and behavior toward CVD risk factors to increase information to children and ultimately decrease CVD risk throughout adulthood (Notara, et al., 2018).
Keywords: Health Literacy, Cardiovascular disease, Greece, Children, Obese.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the initial reason for death and premature disability. The death rates are increasing globally and approximately more than 17.4 million individuals have died. This amount total is about 30% worldwide. There are many reasons that lead to CVD (Notara, et al., 2018). Pressure and stress on a young individual can have severe outcomes concerning the body and mind when it comes to health and influencing CVD. Stress can induce many risk factors, such as obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, inhaling smoke into the lungs, and drinking alcohol (Manios, et al., 2016) (Roemmich, Lambiase, Balantekin, Feda, & Dorn, 2014). All of these factors can start in one’s early life, particularly in one’s childhood years (Notara, et al., 2018). The more prominent physical and mental pressure is, the more likely that pressure will deliver negative consequences for cardiovascular health.
Unhealthy behavioral customs can have an unhealthy diet, eating too many calories in a day, going out to restaurants and quick fast food meals. An unhealthy diet can lead to being not physically active. Laying around in a house all day, sitting in front of a television playing video games instead of playing outside getting exercise can be a danger zone to adolescence. Europe studies factored in maternal ranks to be a link with growth in BMI to their offspring (Patsopoulou, et al., 2015). Health literacy regarding CVD is important because it makes a huge impact on our generation as well as on future generations. Public health can be associated with health literacy. Patient health behaviors have also been associated with low literacy levels. A person’s background of knowledge, how much they make in a year, their ethnic background and age all can affect poor literacy skills. People who are in the group of minorities and are at the lower end of the socioeconomic status makes this effect out of balance (Axt, 2019). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the definition of health literacy is an extent to how well a human being is proficient, how they convey, process and comprehend essential health information and how to make proper health choices for themselves (US department, 2016). Doctors and educators provide knowledge to the public about helping to find information, communicating about healthcare, understanding how to process, and deciding future options for anyone who needs it. Children all over the world might learn about health, well being, and the outcomes of not being healthy in health classes. However, they may not fully comprehend and grasp what they are being told.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate relevant and critical issues related to the health literacy of young adults in Greece and the United States. This analysis will allow understanding of current issues like Cardiovascular Disease that will impact health literacy both in Greece and in the United States.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can jeopardize the health of both genders. Notara (2018), and her research team completed a study in the following cities in Greece: Athens, Heraklion, Sparta, Kalamata, and Pyros. The study focused on children between the ages of ten and twelve and was in the fifth and sixth grade of the school year. All participants who were studied using an anonymous survey were found to have a better understanding of the knowledge of CVD. To further explain the results of the study, Notara (2018) also included a parent survey. Questions in the survey dealt with the children’s dietary habits, physical activity knowledge, perceptions of risk factors for chronic diseases, inquiries concerning self-recognition, and how subjects managed their stress. The main categories of the poll were demographic attributes, body composition attributes, as well as knowing the risk factors of the CVD.
The parental poll consisted of family demographic attributes and family income. Approximately 50% of fathers and approximately 25% of mothers were overweight and approximately 30% of that were obese.
After the study was conducted and the scores were tallied, researchers found that young ladies had higher scores than the young men regarding the answers to having an everyday meal in the morning, understanding that sodas are harmful, and knowing that having hypertension is bad for one’s well-being. Overall, the results revealed the bulk of children have good levels of knowledge about CVD risk factors concerning dietary and lifestyle customs and their outcomes in heart health. However, more than 50% of young men and young girls said that at their age kids can not have hypercholesterolemia or hypertriglyceridemia. This absence of knowledge about two chronic diseases that most Greek children may have is noted. It was revealed that young girls had a higher mean score than young boys, indicating a more elevated amount of information and attitudes toward several factors that affect CVD events (Norata et al., 2018).
Between the United States of America and Greece, The country that has accounted for the most astounding group overweight and obesity is Greece. Manios, et al., (2016) used structured questionnaires for there subjects to see if they understand the health literacy of cardiovascular disease using the CORE-index (an evaluation device to predict overweight individuals). This weight prediction device predicted a 30% growth of obesity from middle childhood years to teenage years. Researchers determined that a 3.5 score is the start of recognizing genders for major risks of health issues (Manios, et al., 2016).
Patsopoulou, et al., (2015) found that overweight and obese kids have to be traced back to their parents. This study targeted the mothers being uneducated in school and how obesity affects mothers as well. Masculine and feminine characteristics learn from their parents and guardians, which has a tendency to pursue in their maternal tracks. Interesting enough, the country that had the opposite outcome was a study did in America. This study also suggested that parenting style also impact childhood BMI. Children who have strict parents have a higher BMI than those whose parents have encouraging and motivational style.
The essential part concerning the attitudes and knowledge related to CVD risk factors is the different genders of kids between the ages of ten and twelve. Feminine characteristics showed greater rankings of CVD risk factors’ knowledge than masculine characteristics (Notara, et al., 2018). Teaching relevant materials to support healthy dietary and lifestyle patterns should be repetitive lessons for growing children. Education programs need to bear in mind feminine and masculine characteristics in adolescence knowledge and behavior toward CVD risk factors to increase information to children and ultimately decrease CVD risk throughout adulthood (Notara, et al., 2018).
Multiple studies focus on the attention of overweight and obesity in young adults as a public health dilemma in Greece (Manios, et al., 2016; Notara, et al., 2018; Patsopoulou, et al., 2015; Schaik, et al., 2017). Parents education level and socioecological status play a major role as to the health of their offspring (Manios, et al., 2016). Factors to prevent CVD and obesity can be fixed by not eating without feeling hungry, not eating anywhere but the dining room, motivational family members that have support focusing on children and themselves to a healthier lifestyle (Patsopoulou, et al., 2015).
Children in school are learning about themselves and about their growing body. In school learning about healthy eating, healthy lifestyle and how exercise can make an impact on their future selves. Most young ladies will have a mindset of looking slimmer. Most young men will have a mindset of looking bulkier with getting muscles. Getting bulkier can with bad health style customs.
Mental stress can get into one’s head. Better ways to decrease mental and behavioral stress is exercising, sleeping or by just getting preoccupied with something less stressful at that moment. Future studies can look at how well individuals look at healthy literacy is compared with psychological stress is associated with CVD (Patsopoulou, et al., 2015; Roemmich, Lambiase, Balantekin, Feda, & Dorn, 2014). Educating youth both in the U.S. and in Greece about CVD will promote improved health and less obesity. Understanding how health literacy is connected to the prevention of unhealthy habits is vital to maintaining a healthy long life.