Definition of globalization in the World
- Pages: 7
- Word count: 1652
- Category: Globalisation
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Globalization simply refers to the global or worldwide process of technological, economic, political and cultural exchanges, brought about by modern communication, transportation and legal infrastructure as well as the political choice to consciously open cross-border links in international trade and finance.
It mainly involves goods and services, the economic resources of capital, information and technology. Advances in the means of transport (such as the Standard Gauge Railway, jet engine, and container ships) and in telecommunications infrastructure (including the rise of the Internet and the mobile industry) have been major factors in globalization, generating further interdependence of economic and cultural activities.
Two strands of globalization process.
i. The Interconnectedness of Societies in the World
Increasing and deepening interconnectedness of societies in different parts of the world is one of the main strands of the globalization process. The flow of information and communication normally will bring societies and citizens closer together.
The social dimension of globalization means the impact of globalization on the life and work of people, on their families and their societies. The Internet and social media brings about increasing interconnectedness among different populations and cultures across the globe. There is continued and significant increase of interconnectedness of human societies around the globe.
ii. Multinational Corporation (MNCs)
The rising activity and power of multinational companies is another one of the main strands of the globalization process.
A multinational corporation or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in two or more countries other than their home country. Multinational corporations manufacture products in many countries and sell to consumers around the world. Raw materials, money and technology move more swiftly across the world.
b. Ethical and Cultural Dimensions of Globalization
Ethics is defined as a system of moral principles or as the rules of conduct recognized in respect to a particular class of human actions or a particular group, culture, etc.
Ethics simply refers to the product of particular traditions of a community, either a particular society, or portion of society, or more widely, it is the product of the particular history of large numbers of societies. Ethics, human rights and the developing global interactions of the whole human race are closely and intimately related. Ethics are connected to morality. Ethics without morality is empty. Values are the building blocks of both morality and of ethics.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights proclaims the entitlement of all rights to human beings all over the world. The fundamental values essential to international human relations include the following; freedom, equality, solidarity, tolerance, respect for nature and shared responsibility.
Values, morality, ethics, law and human rights are all intertwined in a complex normative cluster.
Truth, freedom, justice and peace, along with the other values declared at the Millennium Summit- equality, solidarity, tolerance, respect for nature and shared responsibility among the nations for economic and social development-are being recognized and practiced, or violated in different ways in the most diverse situations around the world.
Building an ethical and sustainable form of globalization is not exclusively a human rights matter, but it must include the recognition of shared responsibility for the universal protection of human rights. That responsibility is shared by all of us, individuals, the religions, corporations, states, international financial institutions, etc.
Poverty is at the center of a number of human rights violations and is at the same time a major obstacle to achieving sustainable development and environmental protection. There is need for globalization as an economic process to be subject to moral and ethical considerations and to respect international legal standards and principles.
Cultural globalization refers to the transmission of ideas, meanings, and values around the world in such a way as to extend and intensify social relations. This process is marked by the common consumption of cultures that have been diffused by the Internet, popular culture media, transnational marketing of particular brands and international travel or tourism.
Migration is an important aspect of cultural globalization, and in this sense, this process has been going on for several centuries, with languages, religious beliefs, and values being spread by military conquest, missionary work, and trade. However, in the last 30 years, the process of cultural globalization has dramatically intensified due technological advances in both transportation and communications technology.
The globalization of food is one of the most obvious examples of cultural globalization – food consumption is an important aspect of culture and most societies around the world have diets that are unique to them, however the cultural globalization of food has been promoted by fast food giants such as McDonald’s, Pizza Inn, KFC and Starbucks. The spread of these global food corporations has arguably led to the decline of local diets and eating traditions.
c. Emerging Issues in Globalization and Security
Environmental threats to security Environmental issues cut across a range of topics, namely security and economics, two areas of major importance to the state. The environment, in general, and natural resources, in particular, are deeply linked with security. The concept of security can be defined as the assurance people have that they will continue to enjoy the things which are most important to their survival and well-being.
Environmental security extends the concept of security by considering risks posed by environmental change to the things that people value. Such risks include climate change, deforestation, soil erosion and desertification, loss of biodiversity, air, land and water pollution, ocean acidification, depletion of the ozone layer, disruption of the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles, among others.
The Industrial Revolution, driven by technological development, agriculture, urbanization and the development of transport, as a response to population growth and the resulting increase in per capita demand, promoted consumption levels of goods and services that require, for example, large amounts of water, consumption levels which currently seem to be increasingly difficult to maintain.
Economic development and security are therefore threatened by poor management of water resources. Environmental protection, in other words, environmental security, covers food security, energy security, economic security and the access to fundamental natural resources, which leads us immediately to the concept of human security.
Globalization facilitates many criminal operations. For example, money laundering is easier with globalized banking and financial services and the liberalization of currency controls. Criminal syndicates have spread their operations across borders, building worldwide alliances and networks, using open economic and political borders. A computer hacker can steal millions from financial institutions. Terrorist networks have globalized and operate throughout the world, with cells in North America, Europe, the Middle East, Africa and elsewhere.
Human trafficking is the trade of humans, most commonly for the purpose of forced labor, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others. Human trafficking is a growing and particularly exploitative category of global crime mostly involving women and children. It is used to promote sex tourism because of the returns in foreign exchange. Trafficked people are held against their will through acts of coercion, and forced to work for or provide services to the trafficker or others.
The work or services may include anything from bonded or forced labor to commercial sexual exploitation. The arrangement may be structured as a work contract, but with no or low payment, or on terms which are highly exploitative. Sometimes the arrangement is structured as debt bondage, with the victim not being permitted or able to pay off the debt.
Spread of diseases
The spread of disease through the world is not new. But greater global interactions exacerbate the problem and make containing the disease more difficult. The spread of HIV/AIDS is a case in point. HIV is also spreading fast in areas thought to be relatively free of the virus. Furthermore, every year there are more new cases of malaria and more people are infected with tuberculosis. Ebola is another virulent disease that causes death. Gabon and the Democratic Republic of Congo have witnessed the most recent outbreak. And yet, no cure exists.
Current medical technologies can prevent these diseases from being fatal, but the logic of economic liberalization goes against the imperative of a response. Strong profit incentives drive investments in research and development for treatments and cures, but this also restricts access to those with purchasing power. A tiny fraction of people living with HIV/AIDS now has access to retroviral therapy because of the cost of drugs.
Conflicts within national borders
Uneven globalization also divides communities, nations and regions, impacting on human security. Social tensions and conflicts are ignited when there are extremes of inequality between the marginalized and the powerful. Inequalities between groups whether ethnic, religious or social are the major cause of the current wave of civil conflicts.
It is not only a matter of inequality and insecurity of income, but also of political participation (in parliaments, cabinets, armies and local governments), in economic assets (in land, human capital and communal resources) and in social conditions (in education, housing and employment).
Unstable Labour market.
Rapid technological changes open new opportunities for jobs. But they also put pressure on labour markets to be more flexible and to increase job insecurity for workers. To be competitive in today’s markets requires workers to have much greater flexibility to take on new activities, to train and re-train, and means that employers will shed and recruit new workers.
The employment impact on globalization is not necessarily on the level of employment and unemployment, but on the rapid change in demand for labour, leading to job insecurity. With ever-changing technology, people need ever-changing skills yet, even in the richest countries, many lack the basics.
Financial market Instabilities
Financial crisis leads to job losses, crises in health care and, in some cases, the collapse of community life. The escalating price of essentials such as food and medicine is normally accompanied by increases in unemployment, suicides, domestic violence and other consequences. The poor, especially in rural areas, bore most of the cost of crisis.
1. “Globalization and Global History” (PDF). p. 127. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
2. International Monetary Fund. (2000). “Globalization: Threats or Opportunity.” 12 April 2000: IMF Publications.
3. Anheier, Helmut, Marlies Glasius and Mary Kaldor (Eds) (2001)
Global Civil Society 2001 Oxford University Press, New York.