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Culture of Emotional Nutrition

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The first study that I picked to research is called “Distal and Proximal Predictors of Snacking at Work: A Daily-Survey Study” it was published in the Journal of applied psychology on February 1st, 2017. The survey that was done conducted 247 employees over a period of 2 weeks. The purpose of this study was to examinate the predictors of healthy and unhealthy snacking at work. Snacks became a huge part of our life and in it extremely hard to resist having some chips or a granola bar while doing office work and constantly looking at the computer. Snaking is associated with obesity and other serious health issues. In this study they looked at sweets as an unhealthy snacks, fruits as relatively healthy snacks, and cereal bars as a category that shares both healthy (a high percentage of fibers) and unhealthy features (a high percentage of sugar). The author looked at some of the food-choice motives and the reasons that people pick certain snacks as their dietary choice. Some of the food choice motives were based on item’s price, familiarity, and health. Empirical research suggests that people who are motivated to eat healthily and for whom healthy eating is important, indeed consume more healthy food and less unhealthy food.

One of the other topics that this article focused on was organizational culture versus emotional eating and self-control demands. Organizational factors have a tremendous influence on what people eat while they are at work. Organizational eating climate comprises values and expectations shared by organizational members, such as healthy eating and picking the healthy products as a snack. There is a lot of organizational methods and procedures that encourage healthy eating. Offering healthy food, communicating with employees on how to pick the right snacks and producsts. Most office workers experience stress and negative emotions such as anxiety or irritability. This factors could cause emotional eating which may lead to excessive eating causing various health problems. Emotional eating as an eating style is positively related to the consumption of sweet snacks (Keller & Siegrist, 2015) and predicts an increase in BMI over time (Koenders & van Strien, 2011). Self-control is one of the most important factors when it comes to picking the snacks. These demands differ based on a job and fluctuate within person from day to day.

This survey was conducted and measured using two surveys: general survey and daily afternoon survey. In general survey they assessed organizational eating climate and emotional eating. For both measures we used a response format ranging from 1 I fully disagree to 5 I fully agree. An overall measure of organizational eating culture was measured as .87. The authors measured emotional eating with the German version of the 13-item emotional-eating scale of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (Grunert, 1989; van Strien et al., 1986). A sample item is “I have a desire to eat when I am irritated” The end result was .93.

Daily afternoon survey measured self-control demands, snaking behavior, and eating motives. From the data collected across the 10 days the self-control demands was .85. Food choice motives ended up being .82.

Overall, the study showed that individual as well as organizational variables predicts snacking on the job. Organizational climate is linked to health as food choice motive and the consumption is relatively healthy products. The tendency of emotional/stress eating on the job is linked to the consumption of unhealthy or sweet snacks.


  1. Grunert, S. G. (1989). Ein Inventar zur Erfassung von Selbstaussagen zum Ernährungsverhalten [An inventory for assessing self-reports on nutri- tion behavior]. Diagnostica, 35, 167–179.
  2. Keller, C., & Siegrist, M. (2015). Does personality influence eating styles and food choices? Direct and indirect effects. Appetite, 84, 128–138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2014.10.003
  3. Koenders, P. G., & van Strien, T. (2011). Emotional eating, rather than lifestyle behavior, drives weight gain in a prospective study in 1562 employees. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 53, 1287–1293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0b013e31823078a2
  4. Sabine Sonnentag, S., Pundt, A., & Venz, L. (2017). Distal and Proximal Predictors of Snacking at Work: A Daily-Survey Study. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 151-162.

The Relationship Between Sleep and Work: A Meta-Analysis

The second article that I picked as a research requirement is called “The Relationship Between Sleep and Work: A Meta-Analysis”, it was published in The Journal of Applied Psychology on April 1st,2017. The study conducted the relationship between sleep and work performance and calculated meta-analytic correlations of sleep quality and sleep quantity from 152 primary studies of sleep among workers in organizations.

The quality and quantity of a person’s sleep have major implications for cognitive performance (Lim & Dinges, 2010), motor functioning (Durmer & Dinges, 2005), mental health (Benca, Obermeyer, Thisted, & Gillin, 1992), and long-term physical health (Strine & Chapman, 2005). Nonetheless, findings from national surveys consistently show that many U.S. employees sleep little, sleep poorly, and often feel sleepy during the day (e.g., McKnight-Eily et al., 2011).

According to the article, findings from national surveys show that many U.S sleep little, very poorly, and often feel sleepy during the day.

The prevailing theory of sleep regulation states that two types of processes regulate sleep (Borbély, 1982, 2009). Homeostatic sleep-regulating processes consist of a need to sleep that accumulates during wake- fulness and is met during sleep. Circadian sleep-regulating processes consist of internal bodily processes that regulate when a person feels sleepy. Organizational sleep research has generally conceptualized sleep as one of two variables: sleep quality and sleep quantity (e.g., Barnes, 2012; Barnes, Schaubroeck, Huth, & Ghumman, 2011).

As stated in the article, there is two antecedents that affect sleep cycles: individual and organizational. Age has been commonly exanimated as an individual antecedent, as well as the effect of family and friends on sleep. Organizational antecedents refer to characteristics of job environments that have been found to affect sleep quality and sleep quantity. Some of the people that participated in a study mentioned that they have experienced occupational stressors, role ambiguity, role conflict, interpersonal conflict, situational constraints, and perceived control as correlates of employee sleep.

This article used literature research in order to collect all the data, electronic databases for any relevant study published between 1970 and May of 2015 (no studies of sleep published before 1970 had effect sizes that were amenable to inclusion). The results of the study showed that there was a small, positive relation that existed between sleep quality and quantity. The finding from this research also identified gaps in sleep knowledge which is very useful for future researches. According to the article, comprehensive model of the impact of sleep on individual and organizational workplace outcomes is absent from the literature. In addition to a lack of research about specific constructs, questions still exist about more frequently examined constructs. A lack of knowledge exists regarding the causal relationship between employee sleep and employee health, as well as other outcomes.

Looking at sleep patterns could help a lot in exanimating work productivity and health concerns. The studies that were mentioned in this research made a huge difference in understanding the relation between sleep and work. However, there is still a lot of space for research and a lot of topics concerning sleep are missing a lot of information and data. I believe that this research combined a lot of great studies and using the data provided showed the indisputable connection between sleep and work.  

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