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Comparison of Two Primary Civilizations

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The rise of civilization is one of the most important topics in world history. Due to technology and digging techniques scientists were able to explore how cultures developed, how the culture lived in relation to religion and society and what of these findings can be related to nowadays. Thus in the following Essay I will contrast two of the Primary Civilizations: Early India and Early China

Early Indian Civilization

With the beginning of the 4th millennium BC individual settlements were replaced by a more consistent form of existence. By the middle of the 3rd millennium BC a unified culture had developed which contained parts of Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Baluchistan, Sind and the Makran coast.

The first known settlements in India are known as the origin of Indian culture. These settlements are date back to 3000 BC. The Indian culture was restricted to the Indus Valley, so they are identified as the ‘Indus Valley Civilization’. This culture was already highly developed. Evidence for the high development are supported by the rediscovered ruins of Mohenjodaro and Harappa. Following archaeological diggings prove that the culture was not limited to the Indus Valley, but that also the northwest and the west of India were populated by humans. Because of this, this culture is better described as Harappa civilization.

Early Chinese Civilization

The territory of present-day China was already inhabited in the Paleolithic era in 10000 BC . A high culture has developed around the same time as the Harappa culture. It was characterized by the settlement at important rivers and the irrigation of the fields as well as the construction of large cities with temples.

During the Paleolithic era China as well as other parts of Asia particularly build chisels from stone choppers which were used as tools. Especially here is the transition from the middle stone hunter culture to the farming with agriculture and livestock to watch.


Because of the Aryan Invasion the Harappan society was differentiated by Jobs and thus required an organizing administration, similar to a government. A rise of a class system was the result.

Paintings also point to the use of animals such as camels, goats and water buffalos. The Harappans cultivated wheat, barley, peas and sesame and were probably one of the first to make cotton clothing. Trade seemed to be one of the most important activities in the Indus Valley. The amount of seals found proves that every merchant family had its own seal. These seals have different shapes and sizes. More discoveries also indicate that the Harappan civilization maintained extensive trade relations with its neighbors in India.

However, the early Chinese society was different. In the 2nd millennium BC Priests and shame gained supremacy. Furthermore, the jade craft developed. From this culture emerged the first Chinese kingship, which is classically divided into five dynasties. They are called Xia, Shang, Thou, Qin and Han Dynasties. The first one is called Xia Dynasty. The Xia Dynasty falls into the 21st century BC.During this time people were able to regulate important rivers and harness them for irrigation of the fields. As well as built large cities with temples as food items. And moreover people created Bronze equipment, drinking utensils and weapons.

Under the Zhou dynasty 1750-221 BC the Fengjian system was introduced in China. The Chinese state relied economically on the royal lands which were managed by normal people. During this time the cultivation of various types of millet, soybeans, wheat, barley and Rice.

The Zhongren were not just farmers. They transport and smelt copper and tin to bronze.


The god figures show that the Harappans worshiped gods in both masculine and feminine form and developed some rituals and ceremonies. There were no monumental sculptures, but a large number of small figures in the form of humans made out of bronze. Countless statues of a mother deity show that she was worshiped in almost every house.

In the early Chinese civilization during the Zou dynasty founders founded a philosophical belief that heaven granted to them the divine right of rulers who were morally worthy. This philosophical belief is called the mandate of heaven. The mandate of heaven meant that a ruler did not have to be of high birth. The ancient Chinese regarded the emperor as the ‘son of heaven“.

All in all the two Primary Civilizations Early India and Early China are showing many similarities, but also differences. Both culture developed roughly at the same time and both cultures developed nearly the same in case of economics. However, in case of religion both cultures differ from each other. The early Chinese culture believed in the mandate of heaven whereas the early Indian culture believed in many Gods, what is also seen nowadays int the Indian culture.

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