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Children’s development

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  • Category: Child

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Children’s development in ongoing process and it is continuous. Children will develop at different rates, but the sequence of how they develop is roughly the same, as they need to develop one skill before they can reinforce another one, for example, babies are likely to sit before they can crawl, or children will start walking before running.
Development is broken down in ages and for each age is measured on different aspects: physical, social and emotional, language and communication skills and intellectual development.

Let’s analyse growth and development in the stages:

• Infancy from birth to one year early years
• Early years 1-3 years old
• Childhood 4-7 years old
• Puberty from 8–12 years
• Adolescence from 13–16 years
• 17-19 years

Physical Development. Social & Emotional Development. Communication Skills & Language. Intellectual


From birth to one year old. Within weeks of being born babies will start smiling and responding to sounds and environments around them. Babies can see faces, recognise mum’s voice. They learn how to grasp objects, kick legs, wave arms, play with their own hands and roll over. By 6 months as their muscles begin to develop they will reach for and hold objects which they will also put into their mouths. My staff and I understand how important social and emotional development is for babies, therefore, we cuddle, talk, smile to little ones, as they love attention and respond to the smile. A six months baby is able to make different happy sounds. At about 9 months babies can sit without support, may crawl or shuffle. Learns through senses.

One to three years. By their first birthday, babies can stand alone and start walking while holding or some may be walking alone. Most toddlers can feed themselves, at least with their fingers. A one year old finds mother or a key worker (in my setting) very important and becomes unhappy when they leave. Will start communicate by babbling sounds with others; copy adults’ behaviour. Will not play nicely with other children and a lot of times will poke, push or pull instead, that’s why we pay a lot of attention to one year old to make sure they won’t hurt each other in my setting. They like being held, cuddled or spoken to and start recognising most used words, like mum, dad, dog or etc. About age of 18 months they can use a spoon, hold a crayon and scribble something. Around the second birthday children can walk down the stairs and upstairs, can climb on furniture. Mother is still very important for a two year old. Will enjoy interaction with adults, which are familiar and generally is in a happy mood. However, may become very angry and frustrated if he doesn’t like something and throw tantrums. Therefore, cuddles, security from adults, trust and attention are key things to make them feel comfortable and safe. They love to explore and might put fingers in holes. By their third birthday, children can run, climb and pedal, throw a ball, jump, push and walk on tiptoe. They are able to build a tower of 9 bricks. Children enjoy playing with role play toys and love dressing up, enjoy copying and helping adults. Usually fears loud noises and still finds mother’s departure very unpleasant. Loves to explore and is very curious. Continues to learn through senses, can sing along and talk in sentences are very creative and love using their imagination.

Seventh birthday. By their seventh birthday, children can: throw, catch and kick a ball, ride a bicycle, roller skate, and balance on a wall or beam. Have well established hand-eye coordination, can use scissors well and write clearly. Children withdraw from adults, love playing cooperatively and take turns. They are able to tell jokes to each other, like being independent. Will read books and enjoy conversations. They might be frightened of things like ghosts or vampires. At this age they often have the best friend and get worried not being liked.

8-12 years. Children of 8-10 years old usually are very active and engage in rough games, especially boys, therefore may have some accidents. Ha good body control and likes to be involved in more complicated craft activities or creative projects. Makes friends very easily, enjoys making jokes, laughs, teasing each other. Girls are developing faster than boys. Puberty starts at around 10 years for girls with growth spurt. Has more secrets. By their twelfth birthday, children are able to solve problems, have their hobbies, and use good coordination. Around twelvish birthday children start arguing with their parents, they seem very grown up but also very childish at times.

13-16 years. Very often experience rapid increase in height and weight. Becomes much stronger. By their sixteenth birthday they have an adult body, enjoys their friends’ company more than their family. Usually have the whole gang of friends. Often have feeling their parents are to strict and old fashioned. They develop individual taste in what style of music, clothes they like and what they not, often have high level of skills in some areas, for example drawing or computing. They have mood swings, feel very anxious at times. Thrive on arguments, like to discuss new objects and have strong view and opinion.

17-19 years. Physical maturation is completed. Worries about failure; may enjoy relationship with opposite sex, might even be in very serious and romantic relationship and talk about marriage. Increases interest in sex. May appear moody and stubborn, has strong views. Thinks about future and makes plan for it.

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