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Child & Young Persons Development

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1.1 Describe the expected pattern of children and young peoples development from birth to 19 years to include:-

* Physical Development
* Communication and Intellectual development
* Social , emotional and behavioural development

A child’s development can be measured through physical and language milestones, intellectual, emotional and social development. Each child follows a similar pattern, but each child can vary in their development and reach milestones at different times in their development. This is called the Holistic Process.

In general, child development progresses:-
* From head to toe, beginning at the top of the body and gradually moving downwards. * From inner to outer. Firstly gaining control of muscles close to the trunk/head and then moving outwards so the large muscles in the shoulders and upper arms/thighs are first and the extremities last. * From simple to complex, children progress from simple words to complex sentences. * From general to specific, emotional responses involve the whole body in young babies but may involve only the face in an older child.

www.homelearningcollege.com/HLC/media/pdf/samplematerial/chilcare/NCFE-level2, accessed 04/02/2013

Physical Development

Physical development includes movement skills, gross and fine motor skills, eye – hand co-ordination and general coordination. There is also a significant increase in muscular strength.

From birth to 3 months babies have very little control over their bodies and much of their time is spent sleeping, although this is a very fast growth period for physical development. Their first movements are reflex, for example, suckling, grasping a finger. Gradually baby will start to lift its head and gradual movements of the arms and legs become smoother. The grasp reflex is decreased as the hand-eye coordination develops.

From 3 – 9 months babies will begin to gain control of their neck muscles and their eyes will follow people and objects around the room. They may begin to sit up unaided and start to crawl/shuffle. The pincer grab will form and they may be happy to play alone for short periods of time.

Piaget described this stage from birth to approximately 2 years as a period of rapid cognitive growth. Initially equipped with a set of reflex movements and a set of perceptual systems, the infant quickly begins to build up direct knowledge of the world around it by relating physical actions to perceived results. www.simplypsychology.org/sensorimotor.html by Saul McLeod, published 2010, accessed 06/02/2013Stages of Cognitive Development Stage | Characterised by |

Sensori-motor
(Birth-2 yrs) | Differentiates self from objects Recognises self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally: e.g. pulls a string to set mobile in motion or shakes a rattle to make a noise Achieves object permanence: realises that things continue to exist even when no longer present to the sense (pace Bishop Berkeley) | Pre-operational

(2-7 years) | Learns to use language and to represent objects by images and words Thinking is still egocentric: has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others Classifies objects by a single feature: e.g. groups together all the red blocks regardless of shape or all the square blocks regardless of colour | Concrete operational

(7-11 years) | Can think logically about objects and events Achieves conservation of number (age 6), mass (age 7), and weight (age 9) Classifies objects according to several features and can order them in series along a single dimension such as size. | Formal operational

(11 years and up) | Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systemtically Becomes concerned with the hypothetical, the future, and ideological problems |

Stages of Cognitive Development
Stage | Characterised by |
Sensori-motor
(Birth-2 yrs) | Differentiates self from objects Recognises self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally: e.g. pulls a string to set mobile in motion or shakes a rattle to make a noise Achieves object permanence: realises that things continue to exist even when no longer present to the sense (pace Bishop Berkeley) | Pre-operational

(2-7 years) | Learns to use language and to represent objects by images and words Thinking is still egocentric: has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others Classifies objects by a single feature: e.g. groups together all the red blocks regardless of shape or all the square blocks regardless of colour | Concrete operational

(7-11 years) | Can think logically about objects and events Achieves conservation of number (age 6), mass (age 7), and weight (age 9) Classifies objects according to several features and can order them in series along a single dimension such as size. | Formal operational

(11 years and up) | Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systemtically Becomes concerned with the hypothetical, the future, and ideological problems |

From 9 months – 3 years babies will learn to walk, run, jump and hop using their gross motor skills. They have more control over their movements allowing them to point, hold small objects using the fine pincer grasp and gain more independence in toilet training.

From 3 to 7 years the child’s movements will be more coordinated. They will learn to balance when hopping, skipping and playing with balls. The fine pincer grip when holding pens, pant brushes will be more defined.

From 7 – 12 years as the child begins to grow and develop, there will be an increase in the fine motor skills and movement. Handwriting will be more legible and hobbies such as football, musical instruments, sewing, baking will be controlled.

From 12 – 16 years, in adolescence children start to go through puberty. Boys become stronger whilst girls may overtake them in height.

From 16 – 19 years, young people become adults and girls will have reached their physical maturity. Boys will continue to grow until their mid twenties.

Milestones for the development of fine and gross motor skills by age

Age| Development of fine motor skills| Development of gross motor skills| 3 months| * Watches hands and plays with fingers * Clasps and unclasps hands * Can hold a rattle for a moment| * Lifts head and chest up * Waves arms and brings hands together over body| 6 months| * Reaches for a toy * Can move a toy from one hand to another * Puts objects into mouth| * Moves arms to indicate he/she wants to be lifted. * Can roll over from back to front| 9 months| * Can grasp object with index finger and thumb * Can deliberately release objects by dropping them| * Can sit unsupported * Is likely to be mobile, i.e. crawling or rolling| 12 months| * Uses index finger and thumb (pincer grasp) to pick up small objects * Can point to objects with the index finger| * May stand alone briefly * May walk holding on to furniture (although some children may be walking unaided)| 18 months| * Can use a spoon to self-feed * Can scribble * Can build a tower of three bricks| * Can walk unaided * Can climb up on to a toy * • Can squat to pick up a toy| 2 years| * Can draw circles and dots * Can use spoon effectively to feed with| * Can run * Climbs on to furniture * Uses sit-and-ride toys| 2½ years| * May have established hand preference * Can do simple jigsaw puzzles| * Can kick a large ball * May begin to use tricycles| 3 years|

* Turns pages in a book one by one * Washes and dries hands with help * Holds a crayon and can draw a face| * Can steer and pedal tricycle * Can run forwards and backwards * Throws large ball| 4 years| * Buttons and unbuttons own clothing * Cuts out simple shapes• Draws a person with head, trunk and legs| * Walks on a line * Aims and throws ball * Hops on one foot| 5 years| * Forms letters; writes own name * Colours pictures in * Completes 20-piece jigsaw| * Skips with a rope * Runs quickly and is able to avoid obstacles * Throws large ball to a partner and catches it| 6 – 8 years| * Is able to join handwriting * Cuts out shapes accurately * Produces detailed drawings * Ties and unties shoelaces| * Hops, skips and jumps confidently * Can balance on a beam * Chases and dodges others * Can use bicycle and other wheeled toys, such as roller skates| 8 – 12 years| Fine motor skills become more refined allowing for intricate work such as model making, knitting and typing. Less concentration is required allowing children to talk as they use their hands| Increased coordination and perceptual skills. These allow children to concentrate on strategies during games such as football or netball.| 12 – 16 years| Ossification of the hands and wrists is completed in the teenage years. It allows for increased strength in hands allowing for movements such as twisting lids off jars. | Increased stamina and physical endurance as lungs and heart develop|

www.pearsonschoolandcolleges.co.uk/CACHE_L3_StudentBook_unit2.pdf, accessed 19/02/2012

Communication and Intellectual Development

Predicting & anticipating
Gaining reassurance & help

Socialising with others

Assertiveness

Ways in which communication skills are produced.

Asking questions

For self – direction

Describing events & objects

Giving explanations & instructions

Intellectual development is learning the skills of understanding, memory and concentration, while communication takes many forms including body language, facial expression, pictures and symbols although many communications involve the use of language

From birth to 3 months babies will begin to realise others around them, making a variety of ‘happy’ sounds, respond to music and try to copy carer’s movements, babbling sounds, laughing and chuckling.

From 3 – 9 months babbling sounds will be replaced by 4 to 5 different sounds and will turn its head towards the sound of origin. They may also show feelings by squealing with pleasure or crying.

From 9 months – 1 year, most Babies will start to speak by the first year, although pronunciation may not be clear.

From 1 – 2 years they will move on from saying single words known as telegraphic speech to stringing them together and furthermore a child will understand the key words in the sentences used.

From 2 – 3 years Sentences will be formed and the child will become more enquiring, asking what?why?when?. By their 3rd birthday they could be using several hundred words and be able to scribble and make marks on paper with a dynamic pencil grip.

From 3 to 7 years children will understand 2 or 3 simple tasks to do at the same time. For example, can you get your beaker from the table and bring it to me. Children become more social and will have mastered the basic grammar in their own language. Basic pitch and tone will be used and past tenses may be used. Their vocabulary extends to over 1500 words. Approaching reception year at school their grammar will become more accurate. They will be able to read and use books as a source of pleasure using the pictures to aid this.

From 7 – 12 years During this period children’s speech becomes clearer as their tongue, teeth and jaw develop. Children begin to use language to get their point of view across to others, although some do this by simply raising their voice! In this period, children’s level of language is key to their acquiring the skills of reading their own language. They may read aloud and to themselves and will know the different tenses and grammar.

From 12 to 18 years During this period, children’s vocabulary continues to increase. They should also be starting to use language to help them problem solve and reason. Confidence and skills in reading and writing develops. The child can reason using logic. Young people’s speech is fluent, mature and they can use it to argue and negotiate. Young people should be able to read easily and write fairly accurately, but these skills are variable. Where language is developed, young people are able to use it to reason.

Social, Emotional and Behavioural Development

This part of human development relates to feelings, emotions, morals, beliefs, and ethics. Social-emotional development in humans occurs throughout age. It is reflected through thoughts on what are right and wrong and other matters of belief and opinion. As a human develops its thoughts include more reasoning and complexity. Through this development a human becomes more aware of their selves and others, and a human will be able to deal with social-motional developments better. It iincludes forming relationships, learning social skills, caring for others, self reliance, making decisions, developing self confidence and dealing with emotions. Social development is the growth of a child’s ability to relate to others and become more independent, whereas, emotional development is the growth of a child’s ability to feel and express an increasing range of emotions appropriately.

From birth to 3 months Babies depend entirely on their carers but from 4 – 8 weeks they may begin to smile in response to the carer’s voice, and grasp a finger if the opened palm is touched. By two months they will be able to follow your face and stop crying when picked up.

3 – 9 months babies may stop crying with communicated with. They will begin to look at their hands and feet with interest. The first sign of fear when a stranger approaches may be evident and they will need the reassurance of the carer. Mirror imagining of the carer by occur, for example when playing peek – a –boo.

By 1 year they will be able to wave goodbye, know their own name and be able to obey simple instructions.

At 18 months they may have to try and establish themselves as members of a social group, copy and mimic others, show some social emotion for example sympathy for someone who is hurt. They will be easily frustrated and often have tantrums because of this.

From 18 moths to 3 years children begin to test their limits and do what they have been forbidden to do, simply to see what will happen. Some young children have particular difficulty controlling their impulses. During the preschool years, children become aware of gender role, of what boys and girls typically do.Children begin to play interactively with other children. Although they may still be possessive about toys, they may begin to share and even take turns in play. Although children may strive for independence, they still need their carers nearby for security and support. For example, they may walk away from their parents when they feel curious only to later hide behind their parents when they are fearful.

From 3 to 7 years many children become interested in fantasy play and imaginary friends. Fantasy play allows children to safely act out different roles and strong feelings in acceptable ways. Fantasy play also helps children grow socially. They learn to resolve arguments with carers or other children in ways that help them vent frustrations and maintain self-esteem. Children may also be given the opportunity of being given responsibility and may feel more secure when left on their own, for example at the school gates.

7 to 12 years more complexed friendships will be formed, especially with the same sex. They will acquire a group of friends and siblings can serve as role models and as valuable supports and critics in what can and cannot be done. This period of time is very active for children, who engage in many activities and are eager to explore new activities. At this age, children are eager learners and often respond well to advice about safety, healthy lifestyles, and avoidance of high-risk behaviours.

12 to 16 years Children want to be like their friends and be ‘normal.’. They fear being different. They enjoy being with friends, and they like one-on-one time with adults. They begin to doubt their parents’ beliefs. Girls begin to like boys. Friends are important but there is room for other relationships; conflict with parents begins to decease, concern for others increases. Children become more independent. They enjoy some family and community traditions. They need love and respect of parents and friends, but they may pretend not to care. They have a clearer idea of right and wrong. They sometimes behave like children when they are under stress.

From 16 to 19 years The child enters adulthood and although they will still need guidance from adults, their emotions and maturity continues to grow and more intimate relationships will form. They can have deep feelings of love and passion; they have a better sense of who they are sexually and they are better able to wait for results. They are more able work through conflicts with others.

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