Child and Young Person Development Analytical
- Pages: 10
- Word count: 2291
- Category: Child
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1.1 Describe expected pattern of children and young people’s development from birth to 19 years. Birth to one year
New-born babies can:
* see faces as fuzzy shapes
* grasp an object that has touched the palm of their hand
* turn their head to look for a nipple or teat if their cheek is touched
* suck and swallow
* try to make stepping movements if they are held upright with their feet on a firm surface
* startle in response to a sudden sound or bright light
* stretch their arms suddenly and then bring them in if they feel they are falling
* recognise their mother’s voice and smell
* cry when they are hungry, in pain, need feeding, changing or just cuddling. One to three years
By their first birthday, babies can:
* move around, either by crawling or shuffling or some may be standing with support and a small number walking alone * sit up alone and feed themselves, at least with their fingers * use their hands skilfully to move and arrange objects including dropping things on the floor and looking to see where they are * wave ‘bye bye’ and point at things with their fingers * communicate by babbling and saying two syllable words like ‘dada’ * understand the world around them
* know who their main carers are and cry if they are left with someone they do not know. Third birthday By their third birthday, children can:
* run, climb and pedal a tricycle
* walk upstairs on alternate feet and walk on tiptoe
* use the toilet alone
* talk clearly so anyone can understand them
* tell the difference between boys and girls
* sometimes play co-operatively with other children
* build a tower of nine bricks and build a bridge with bricks
* undo buttons and thread beads
* enjoy playing with role play toys and dressing up
* enjoy books
* enjoy painting and may do ‘pretend’ writing
* have fewer temper tantrums (that started when she was about 18 months)
* enjoy copying and helping adults
By their seventh birthday, children can:
* throw, kick and control a ball, hop and ride a bicycle
* use their hands to thread, use scissors well, build models and write clearly
* draw with meaning and detail
* take turns and play co-operatively with friends
* tell jokes and enjoy conversations
* start to understand rules
* be frightened of fictitious things like ghosts
* read and enjoy books
* dress themselves easily
* have a best friend
* worry about not being liked.
By their twelfth birthday, children can:
* solve problems
* enjoy responsibility
* have a keen interest in hobbies
* use good co-ordination skills
* tell you what they are good at
* start to see physical changes in their body
* start to argue with their parents
* Seem very grown up but also very childish at times.
By their sixteenth birthday a young adult can:
* have an adult body
* have high level of skills in some areas, for example drawing or computing
* enjoy their friends’ company more than that of their family
* develop their own identity, tastes in music, clothes
* have mood swings
* feel very anxious at times
* be very confident with friends
* Leave school and get married.
1.2 Describe with examples how different aspects of development can affect one another. Development is the gaining of skills in all aspects of the child’s life. The different types of development are often split into four areas: Physical development: this refers to the body increasing in skill and performance and includes: * gross motor development (using large muscles), for example legs and arms * fine motor development (precise use of muscles), for example hands and fingers. Social and emotional development: this is the development of a child’s identity and self-image, the development of relationships and feelings about him or herself and learning the skills to live in society with other people. Intellectual development: this is learning the skills of understanding, memory and concentration. Communication and speech development: this is learning to communicate with friends, family and all others. Although development is called different names, it is important to remember that these areas are interconnected and link with one another. There are three basic principles of human development that apply to everyone from birth.
1. Development starts from the head and works down the body. A new baby cannot hold up his or her head alone. Yet, within a few months, the baby will be able to sit alone. This is because control of the spine and central nervous system develops from the top of the head down to the base of the spine. You can see this control developing in a baby as he or she starts to hold the head without support. Similarly, a new-born baby waves his or her arms around vaguely, yet in nine months’ time will find the tiniest crumb or piece of Lego easy to pick up with the thumb and finger. This is because the nervous system also develops from the spinal cord out to the extremities (hands and feet). 2. All development happens in the same order, but can occur at different rates. A baby has to hold his or her head up, learn to sit with support, and then without support, before he or she can stand by holding on to furniture and then eventually walk alone. No baby can learn to walk before sitting up. But it is perfectly normal for one baby to walk at ten months and another not to learn this skill until the age of 18 months 3. All areas of development are linked together.
A baby cannot start to finger feed until he or she can sit up and is developing the ability to pick things up between the fingers and thumb. The speech development of a child is affected if the child has difficulties in hearing clearly or if no one talks directly to him or her. A child who does not receive love and attention may fail to grow and develop.
Many activities will stimulate children development that why is important to planning activities in different ways to allowed children to use and develop several skills. There is huge learning potential from cooking activities. Children’s working in small groups learns how to share and gives them plenty of opportunities to talk, listen and watch. They also learn about food: where is coming from and how certain process. Children also learn a lot about maths and science from cooking: measuring quantities learn how food and nutrition affect growth and health, or what happens if one group use plain flour and other self rising.
Other examples of activities and benefits:
2.1 Describe with examples the kinds of influences that affect children and young people’s development including background, health, and environment.
Development is dependent on many factors with some affecting some children more than others. The impact can be positive as well as negative. For example, the opposite of poverty is wealth and a child growing up in a home with no financial worries may be well fed and clothed and have lots of opportunities for educational development. However, these advantages can lose their impact if the child does not have a loving and supportive family.
2.2 Describe with examples the importance of recognising and responding to concerns about children and young people’s development. The different circumstances or environment to which children are exposed during their childhood and teens will affect their development and have an impact on the way children are able to respond in different situations. However if is any concerns about child development in any area, that should be always share with others e.g. in primary school with class teacher in the first instance, followed by SENCO for secondary school concern could be rise straight to the latter. Either those concerns have already been noted by others is still worth to rise them because your observations would be also taken into considerations.All those concerns should be noted with dates and reasons of those concerns with examples, so that can be backed up.It’s also very important that any concerns about child that school have has to be shared with parents. For example:
By the third year, children should be able to read simple chapter books at grade level, write simple sentences, add, subtract, and begin to multiply. Students may not perform these tasks with complete accuracy. It is normal for some letter reversals and mirror writing to appear in their work. Most students will learn to correct these errors with instruction, however if child * Does not connect letters and sounds;
* Cannot read grade-level text;
* Cannot understand what he reads;
* Cannot understanding number concepts;
* Cannot form letters or remember which letters stand for which sounds;
* Has difficulty following directions, even with help;
* Has poor memory;
* Cannot repeat information or copy items;
* Has difficulty following lines when cutting; and
* Has difficulty with attention or behaviour. U may suspect a problem with learning difficult.
4.1 Identify the transitions experienced by most children and young people. &
4.2 Describe with examples how transitions may affect children and young people’s behaviour and development. Transition is any significant stage or experience in the life of a child or young person that can affect behaviour and/or development. Transitions include those that are common to all children and young people, such as moving school and puberty, and those that are particular only to some, such as bereavement and divorce. Transitions can be:
* Emotional, affected by personal experiences, e.g. bereavement * Physical, e.g. moving to a new educational establishment, a new home/locality * Intellectual, e.g. moving from nursery to primary, or primary to secondary school * Physiological, e.g. puberty, long-term medical condition The effects that transitions can have on the development of children and young people * behavioural
Children and young people experience complex transitions throughout their lives. Starting in early years they move away from the home and family into the wider community through preschool activities. Education transitions take them from primary to secondary school, and some on to college or university. Young people move into adulthood accompanied by both greater independence through employment and housing, and more responsibility for their own health and wellbeing, or by starting a family. The nature of transitions is that they lead to changes or adjustments that may be transitory, persistent, or permanent. The ‘life stage’ transition refers to transitions associated with a change of services provided to the child or young person. These transitions are expected and can be planned for, such as the move from primary to secondary school or leaving care. ‘Life change’ transitions are unexpected, resulting from ‘critical events’ such as bereavement or family breakdown and may need to be supported by multi-agency and specialist services. Both ‘life stage’ and ‘life change’ transitions may lead to the emergence of internal, emotional outcomes and challenges to the emerging identify for the young person. The way that a child copes with or manages a transition will depend on their previous experiences, their family support and the support they receive from the practitioners they are involved with.
Schools should not undervalue the importance of developing children’s social and emotional competencies. While children are becoming more independent, spending less time with parents, experiencing physical changes and new relationships, they are also facing problems that, if ignored, may result in risk of crime, substance dependence, mental health issues or behavioural problems lasting into adulthood.Life stage transitions are those transitions associated with a change of services provided to the child or young person. These transitions are largely to be expected and can be planned for, such as educational transitions as children start school, move between primary to secondary school or transitions such as leaving care that occur at particular ages. Being expected, however, does not necessarily mean that the transition will be smooth or unproblematic for the child. These transitions require children to acclimatize to new surroundings, to adapt to new ways of working, to make sense of new rules and routines and to interact with unfamiliar adults and peers. Ability to respond to these challenges may influence the ways in which the child progresses and develops. In every case, transition should be seen as a process, not an event, and should be planned for and discussed with those involve.
4.3 Identify transitions that only some children and young people may experience e.g. bereavement
Everyone will experience aspects of loss and change throughout their life, but there are some loss and change experiences which do not happen to everyone. These may be called ‘circumstantial losses’ and include situations such as family breakdown, homelessness, the death of a relative or friend, imprisonment and serious illness or injury. Some adverse experiences can have both immediate and long-term consequences, particularly for children. Grief is a human response to loss, and mourning is the way in which grief is expressed. Grief incorporates a myriad of emotional, behavioural (affective) and cognitive manifestations. Whatever the circumstances, the death of the person is not only a loss, it is a change and a turning point: the world will never be the same again. Possibly the most damaging situations are those which are harmful to the child-family relationship, but there are numerous events in children’s lives which may have potentially damaging physical, social and emotional consequences. Most children will experience delayed grieving until they feel that their parents are moving on and it is their turn to express their feelings. Children can also regress back in their development for a while because of sadness, anxiety and a new awareness of death and loss. School communities often have to support children who are facing loss. Teachers are naturally concerned to develop good practice.