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Centrifugal Pump

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• Pages: 4
• Word count: 811
• Category: Energy

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A centrifugal pump converts the input power to kinetic energy in the liquid by accelerating the liquid by a revolving device – an impeller. The most common type is the volute pump. Fluid enters the pump through the eye of the impeller which rotates at high speed. The fluid is accelerated radially outward from the pump chasing. A vacuum is created at the impellers eye that continuously draws more fluid into the pump.

The energy created by the pump is kinetic energy according the Bernoulli Equation. The energy transferred to the liquid corresponds to the velocity at the edge or vane tip of the impeller. The faster the impeller revolves or the bigger the impeller is, the higher will the velocity of the liquid energy transferred to the liquid be. This is described by the Affinity Laws.

Note that the latter is not a constant pressure machine, since pressure is a function of head and density. The head is constant, even if the density (and therefore pressure) changes. The head of a pump in metric units can be expressed in metric units as: h = (p2 – p1)/(ρ g) + v22/(2 g) (1)

where
h = total head developed (m)
p2 = pressure at outlet (N/m2)
p1 = pressure at inlet (N/m2)
ρ = density (kg/m3)
g = acceleration of gravity (9.81) m/s2
v2 = velocity at the outlet (m/s)
• a pump’s vertical discharge “pressure-head” is the vertical lift in height – usually measured in feet or m of water – at which a pump can no
longer exert enough pressure to move water. At this point, the pump may be said to have reached its “shut-off” head pressure. In the flow curve chart for a pump the “shut-off head” is the point on the graph where the flow rate is zero

Pump Efficiency

Pump efficiency, η (%) is a measure of the efficiency with which the pump transfers useful work to the fluid. η = Pout / Pin (2)
where
η = efficiency (%)
Pin = power input
Pout = power output

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