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Cancer Research Paper

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  • Pages: 7
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  • Category: Cancer

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Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body (A.D.A.M Medical Encyclopedia). Cancer forms when normal cells in the body grows and divide too quickly. It also occurs when cells don’t die. The lungs, colon, breast, skin, and bones are familiar places for cancer to develop. However, it can form on any organ or tissue in the body. Depending on the location of the tumor a simple biopsy can be done to diagnosis cancer, a biopsy is the removal of a small piece of tissue for laboratory examination, or it may require a surgical procedure. A CAT scan is also another test that can be preformed to determine the location and size of a tumor. A CT scan uses x-rays to create cross sectional pictures of the body (A.D.A.M Medical Encyclopedia). Different cancers are most common depending on the part of the world. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. According to the American Cancer Society, the estimated number of new cases of cancer for 2012 is about 40,000 plus.A research paper was conducted considering the following questions. What are some of the different types of cancers

What are some of the causes, symptoms and treatments

What are the different types of cancers?

There are many types of cancer such as brain, cervical , kidney, liver, ovarian, testicular, etc. The most common types of cancer found in men in the U. S. are prostate, lung, and colon cancer. Breast cancer, ovarian and lung cancer are more popular in
women in the U. S.

When cancer forms in a gland in the male reproductive system this causes prostate cancer(Pub Med Health). Men can be screened for prostate cancer before symptoms begin. Early detection can help catch prostate cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissues are found in the prostate early it is easier to treat. Men who are at risk for prostate cancer includes, but not limited to African Americans, men who are older than 60 and men with a family history of prostate cancer. According, to the cancer National Institute there has been 241,740 new cases of prostate cancer reported and 28,170 deaths so far in 2012.

Lung cancer is another type of common cancer found in the U. S. According to Lynne Eldrige on About.com, lung cancer is currently responsible for 29 percent of cancer related deaths in the U.S. Most lung cancer begins in the cells that live in the bronchi tube. This tube is located down your wind pipe and runs into the lungs, allowing air to travel through your nose and into your chest. There are two different types of lung cancer. NON small lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. NSCLC is the most common type of lung cancer. NSCLS are adenocarcinomas which is usually located on the outter area of the lung. Squamous Cell carcinomas located in the center next to the air tube and large cell carcmomas that can occur in any part of the lung (ADAM Medical Encyclopedia). Fluid around the lungs can be a positive indicator of lung cancer. You can listen for fluids by using a sethoscope. Lung cancer may sometime spread if not detected early. Test that may be done to see if it has spread include but is not limited to bone scan, chest x-ray and complete blood count. According to the American society lung cancer is found more frequently in men than woman. A bar graph is listed below showing statics.

Colon cancer also known as “colorectal”, is cancer that starts in the large intestines or at the end of the rectum. According to the colon cancer alliance , colon cancer is the third most common diagnosed cancer in the U. S. and the second leading cause of death in men and women combined. Approximately 143,460 people were diagnosed with colon cancer in 2012 and 51,690 died from it. During regular screenings polyps can be found and removed before becoming cancerous. Polyps are a growth from a mucous membrane commonly found in organs such as the rectum, the uterus and nose. Adenomas, a certain type of polyp is the one that can develop into cancer. Unfortunately, most colon cancer isnt’s detected in an early state. Most is not detected until around stage 3, local, regional and distant. Listed below are three different types of colon cancer and the percentage causing them from about.com.

The number one type of cancer in women is breast cancer. Breast cancer is a cancer that starts in the tissue of the breast. There are two (2) main types of breast cancer, ductal carnoma and lotolar carcinoma. Dutal Carcinoma starts in the tubes that moves milk from the breast to the nipples. When cancer states in the area that produces milk this type of cancer is known as lobular carcinoma. According to statistics on breast cancer.org, 1 in 8 U.S. Women will develop invasive breast cancer over the course of their lifetime. A research project conducted in 2011, showed that an estimated 230,480 new cases of invasive breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in the U.S. along with 57,650 new cases of non-invasive breast cancer. Doctors recommend that women begin getting mammograms once a year starting at age 40. A mammogram uses low energy x-rays to examine the breast.through the years breast cancer starts to effect different races causing statics to change frequently. Aline graph is listed below showing changes from year 1999 to 2008.

To raise awarness concerning breast cancer October has been appointed National Breast Cancer Awarness month. Unlike other cancers, breast cancer is nationally recognized by a symbolic pink ribbon.

What are some causes, symptoms, and treatment of cancer?

Others who may be at risk for prostate cancer includes farmers, painters and men who eat a diet high in fat. Symptoms of prostate cancer include a slow urinary stream, not being able to completely empty the bladder and blood in the urine. Treatment of prostate cancer consist of radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. There are four main types of radical prostatectomy surgery. The four types consist of radical retropubic, laparusopic, robotic assisted laparusopic and radical perineal. Revovery after treatment depends on how abnormal the cancer cell were at the time of diagnosis and if the cancer has spreaded.

The majority of SCLC cases are caused by smoking cigarettes. Symptoms for SCLC include chest pain, cough, loss of apetite, shortness of breath and weight loss. Treatment for lung cancer includes cancer killing drugs taken orallyor injected into the body. These medicines at times can be combined with cisplati or carboplatin in more severe cases of lung cancer. Lung cancer spreads quickly and can affect other areas ofv the body. Spreading of the disease can rapidly cause severe sickness and the need for more aggressive treatment.

Colon cancer can be a risk factor dependingon what you eat. Diarrhea, weight loss, blood in the stool and abdominal pain and tenderness are all symptoms of colon cancer. Treatment just like prostate cancer consist of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Another method of treatment is called colectomy. This procedure is usally performed to remove cancer cells.

Causes of breast cancer are determined age and gender, genes and a womans menstrual cycle. According to researcher Chalansani P. Downy the older you are the more your risk of breast cancer increase. Genetics can also be a contributing factor to breast cancer. According to a study done by Goss PE, brcal and brca2 are common gene defects that cause breast cancer. Also women who started their menstrual cycle before age twelve or went thru menopause after age 55 have an increased risk for breast cancer.Symptoms for breast cancer include but are not limited to bone pain, breast pain or discomfort, skin uclers and swelling in the arm of the infected breast. Treatment can consist of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Lumpectomy is a surgery that removes the lump from the breast.


Cancer is a illness that effects men and women throughout the country. If not detected early on or treated in a timely fashion cancer can spread throughout the body causing death. According to Moscow JA and Cowan KH, cancer is responsible for over 564,800 deaths this year.Though cancer can play a detrimental effect on your emotiona state, it is recommended to seek treatment as soon as possible if diagnosed. Prevention for cancer starts first by raising awarness. Getting tested annually is another contributing factor to cancer prevention. Support groups are offered throughout the country to help diagnosed patients cope with the disease. According to the american Cancer Institute staying healthy and avtive is a vital part of coping with cancer.


1.A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): A.D.A.M., Inc.; ©2005. Nail abnormalities; [updated 2005 Apr 30; cited 2005 Aug 12]; [about 4 p.]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003247.htm

2.American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures 2008. http://www.cancer.org/docroot/STT/content/STT_1x_Cancer_Facts_and_Figures_2008.asp

3.Chalasani P, Downey L, Stopeck AT. Caring for the breast cancer survivor: a guide for primary care physicians. Am J Med. 2010 Jun;123(6):489-95.

4.Goodwin PJ. Support groups in advanced breast cancer. Cancer. 2005;104:2596-2601

5.Goss PE, Ingle JN, Alés-Martínez JE, et al. Exemestane for breast-cancer prevention in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jun 23;364(25):2381-91

6.Lynne Eldridge MD, About.com Guide Updated August 29, 2012 http://lungcancer.about.com/od/whatislungcancer/a/womenlungca.htm

7.Moscow JA, Cowan KH. Biology of cancer. In Goldman L, SchaferAI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2011:chap 185.

8.National Institutes of Health. Alternative Medicine: Expanding Medical Horizons: A Report to the National Institutes

9.PubMed Health [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); [updated 2011 Jan 1; cited 2011 Jan 6]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/

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