Aids to Effective Teaching
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* THE RECITATION
* ART OF QUESTIONING
* has become a permanent fixture of the classroom situation.
* Is the visible manifestation of the teaching-learning situation. * aids pupils in learning and clarifying abstract concepts and ideas.
* RATIONALE FOR THE RECITATION
* The legitimate excuse for classroom meetings
* Meet to discuss or plan, think, and learn together
* Students and teacher can disagree civilly, and criticisms, especially the constructive ones, are evaluated, accepted or disregarded as the case maybe. * Becomes a living laboratory
* Means of developing many skills, attitudes, abilities, and ideals.
* CURRENT CONCEPT
* Current location for developing:
-ideals for social living
* Matrix for the inculcation of democratic ideals;
-respect for the human personality
-the use of one’s intelligence
* PURPOSES OF RECITATION
* Develop wholesome attitudes essential to effective social living * Provide practice in democratic ideals and processes
* Provide problem-solving activities that will train pupils in reflective thinking and critical evaluation * Encourage freedom of expression and respect for the opinions of others * Wholesome discussion takes place and a kind of atmosphere where creative expression and resourcefulness among pupils develops
* HOW TO CONDUCT THE RECITATION
3. provide for active pupil participation and self-activity. 4. utilize lifelike situations
5. provide for individual differences
6. provide for evaluation
* CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR AN EFFECTIVE RECITATION
1. Good environment
2. Mastery of the subject matter on the part of the teacher 3. Interest and enthusiasm
5. Preparation on the part of the pupils
* CAUTIONS IN CONDUCTING RECITATIONS
1. Pupils should recite for the class, not for the teacher alone. 2. Pupils should not be allowed to do as they please in the classroom. 3. No one should monopolize the recitation, especially the teacher. 4. Modern teacher gives his pupils every chance to recite and aims for even distribution of his questions and activities. 5. Interrupting the pupil who is reciting discourages him in his task. 6. Teachers should know how to handle the responses of pupils.
* THE SOCIALIZED RECITATION
* geared to a greater socialization of the individual
* to train youth for democratic living
* elements of socialization are fostered in the classroom
* cooperative effort characterizes the activity
* spirit of friendliness pervades the atmosphere
* The teacher is no longer the center of attention and no longer the chief actor but is now the member of the class, he suggests rather than orders
* TWO GENERAL TYPES OF
I. FORMAL SOCIALIZED RECITATION
* imitations of adult forms of institutional organizations:
-stimulate a city council meeting or a court of justice
-a meeting of a club
-the proceedings in a business organization
* pupils participate in situations that they are likely to meet after schooling II. INFORMAL SOCIALIZED RECITATION
* Takes the form of discussion groups like;
-round table conferences
-single-leader group discussions
* an the integral part of any lesson.
* students do assignments that are clear, worthwhile and purposeful
* MEANING AND IMPORTANCE OF ASSIGNMENT
* is that part of the lesson which tells the pupils what they are to do and what they are to accomplish in the lesson. * is the chief means of stimulating and directing learning activities inside or outside the classroom. * can be the means of developing good study habits and
* FUNCTIONS OF ASSIGNMENTS
1. to set the goal or direction of the learning activity. 2. to motivate the pupil and prepare him for the job to be done. 3. deals with setting up definite learning activities to be carried out. 4. deals with providing directions for the learning activity. 5. to establish the habit of studying regularly.
* TYPES OF ASSIGNMENTS
-in terms of the pupils for whom the assignment is intended:
1. INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT
2. GROUP ASSIGNMENTS
-in terms of length
1. DAY-TO-DAY ASSIGNMENTS
2. LONG-RANGE ASSIGNMENTS
* POINTERS TO CONSIDER IN GIVING ASSIGNMENTS
1. Make clear to the students the aim of the assigned task. 2. Make clear all directions, procedures, steps, cautions involved in the assignment. 3. Clear all difficulties so that learning will be smooth and continuous. 4. Evaluation of the proper task should be very clear.
5. Assignments should not be given as punishment.
6. Provisions for enough time to complete the assignment should be given. 7. Teachers should distinguish between homework and assignments. 8. Assignments should be within the ability of students in amount and difficulty. 9. Assignments must be checked.
10. Assignments should be varied and interesting.
THE ART OF QUESTIONING
* USES OF QUESTIONS
1. stimulate pupils to think
2. motivate pupils
3. diagnose pupils difficulties
4. discover pupils interests
5. help pupils organize and evaluate
6. aid pupils to relate pertinent experiences to the lesson 7. focus pupils’ attention on the key points of the lesson 8. develop new appreciation and attitudes
9. provide drill or practice
10. show relationships, such as cause and effect
11. encourage the application of concepts
12. encourage pupil evaluation
* CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD QUESTION
1. simple and clear
3. challenging and thought provoking
4. adapted to the age, abilities, and interests of the students 5. requires an extended response
* TECHNIQUES IN HANDLING STUDENTS QUESTIONS
1. Student questions should be allowed by a teacher.
2. A teacher should not answer a student right away.
3. Indiscriminate student questions should not be allowed. 4. A teacher should require students to frame grammatically correct questions. 5. If a teacher is asked questions he cannot answer, he should promptly admit his inability.