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Western and Eastern Europe

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  • Pages: 6
  • Word count: 1332
  • Category: Europe

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Where and when did the Kush and Axum civilizations develop, and what were their major industries for trade? The Kush and Axum civilizations developed to the south of Egypt in the upper reaches of the Nile river. Kush developed at about the same time as ancient Egypt, and at one point around 750 B.C.E. actually conquered it. Less than a hundred years later, however, Kush retreated southward back to its capital at Meroe, where it became the center of ironworks and trade. After the Kush decline around 200 C.E., another empire, Axum, rose to greatness to the south. Although Axum never conquered any other civilization, it traded with them frequently, especially ivory and gold. In the fourth century, Axum converted to Christianity, and in the seventh century, many converted to Islam.

These conversions illustrate that people of Axum were in constant contact with the empires of the Mediterranean world. And that contact has had a long-standing impact. Ethiopia’s large Christian community in the present times is a direct result of the Axum conversion. 28. Why were Islamic traders interested in trading with Western African Kingdoms? In Ghana (about 800-1000 c.e.) and Mali (about 1200- 1450 c.e.), there were tons and tons of gold. So the Islamic traders kept coming. The constant trade brought more than Islamic goods to Ghana and Mali; it brought Islam. For Ghana the result was devastating. The empire was subjected to Holy War led by an Islamic group intent on converting (or else killing) them. While Ghana was able to defeat the Islamic forces, the empire fell into a decline. By the time Mali came to power, the region had converted to Islam anyway, this time in a more peaceful transition. 29. When and where did the Aztecs live?

The Aztecs, also known as the Mexica, arrived in central Mexico in the Mid-1200s and built their capital at Tenochtitlan. More than anything else, the Aztecs are known for the expansionist policy and professional army, which allowed them to dominate nearby states and demand heavy taxes and captives. Through conquest and alliances, the Aztecs built an empire of some 12 million people. But despite the huge size, they didn’t use a bureaucratic form of government. The conquered areas were generally allowed to govern themselves, as long as they paid the tribute demanded of them. Roads were built to link the far-flung areas of the huge empire, and trade flourished.

Compare and contrast the Aztecs and Romans with respect how they expanded their empires and how they treated their subjects. Although the Aztecs and Romans developed large civilizations, continents and centuries apart, they were similar in at least two major aspects. First, they tied together their vast empires by building roads. Second, they generally allowed the people they conquered to govern themselves, as long as they paid their taxes or tributes. Because of the improved transportation systems such as roads and the diversity of cultures under their control, both the Aztecs and Romans were able to adapt ideas from people they conquered and use them for their own purposes. In other words, the Aztecs and the Romans were conquerors, but also borrowers. 31. When and where did the Incas live?

The Inca Empire, set in the Andes Mountains in Peru, was also expansionist in nature. At its zenith, it is thought to have controlled more than 2,000 miles of South American coastline. The Inca’s controlled this territory using a professional army, an established bureaucracy, a unified language, and a complex system of roads and tunnels. 33. Name 8 major trade routes and realize their huge role in cultural diffusion. * The Medditerean trade between Western Europe, the Byzantine Empire, and the Islamic empire.

* The Hanseatic League.
* The Silk Road which was used heavily again from about 1200 C.E. until about 1600 c.e.
* The land routes of the Mongols.
* Trade between China and Japan.
* Trade between India and Persia.
* The Trans-Saharan trade routes between West Africa and the Islamic Empire.

Who were the major players in Indian Ocean trade?
The Persians and the Arabs dominated the Indian Ocean Trade. Their trade routes connected ports in Western India to ports in the Persian Gulf, which in turn were connected to ports in Eastern Africa. Unlike boats that were used on the Mediterranean sea, boats that sailed the Indian Ocean were, necessarily, more resilient to the large waves common in those waters. The traders learned to understand the monsoon seasons and direction of the winds, and scheduled their voyages accordingly. Despite these difficulties, the Indian Ocean trade routes were relatively safe, especially when compared to those on the Mediterranean, where constant warfare was a problem. 35. The Silk Road spread which specific religions, which technologies and products, and used heavily by which group from 1200-1600? The Silk Road connected China to the Medditerean cultures even way back in the earlier days of the Roman Empire. The Silk Road was used heavily again from about 1200c.e. until about 1600 c.e., during the reign of the Mongols.

The Silk Road carried so much more than silk, it carried porcelain and paper. It carried religions, such as Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity. It carried food. Because it extended so far and was used for so long, it’s safe to say that East met West on the Silk Road. 36. How did the Hanseatic League build up the European middle class? The Hanseatic League was a collection of city-states in the Baltic and North Sea regions of Europe that banded together in1241 to establish common trade practices, fight off pirates and foreign governments, and essentially establishes a trade monopoly from the region to much of the rest of the world. The result was enormous for two reasons. First, it resulted in substantial middle class in Northern Europe, a development that would drive changes in that region in later centuries. Second, it set a precedent for large, European trading operations that profoundly affected the Dutch and English, which would also deeply affect the world in later centuries. 37. Name 8 ways that religion and empire expanded through culture clash during this period. * The Mongol expansion into Russia, Persia, India, and China. * The Germanic tribes into southern Europe and England

* The Vikings’ expansion from Scandinavia into England and Western Europe.
* The Magyars’ push from Eastern Europe into Western Europe.
* The Islamic empires push into Spain, India, and Africa.
* The Crusades
* Buddhist missionaries to Japan.
* Orthodox Christian missionaries into Eastern Europe.

The expansion of the religion and empires leading to cultural contact, or the relative isolationism resulted under the feudal systems in Europe and Japan. Another way to encapsulate this period; a time fueled by conquest and religious expansion. 38. List 10 major technological developments of the Islamic World and China. Islamic World China . Paper mills (from China) Gunpowder cannons Universities Moveable type Astrolabe and sextant Paper currency Algebra (from Greece) Porcelain Chess (from India) Terrace farming Modern soap formula Water-powered mills Guns and cannons (from China) Cotton sails Mechanical pendulum clock Water clock Distilled alcohol Magnetic compass Surgical instruments (syringe etc.) State-run factories

Compare/contrast women’s status in Europe, Islam, India, and China. Women’s status’s were similar in certain aspects and differed in others. Women in Europe and India shared a similarity in which they were in strict patriarchal caste systems, when in Islam women had equality in religion but in a separate mosque, and China had strict Confucian social order and guidelines for virtuous behaviors. In Europe women were able to inherit land and take oaths of vassalage, but property belonged to their husband, in Islamic culture they received half inheritance of male children, in India they had arranged child marriages, and in China access to dowries and owned businesses. China relates to Indian, European, and Islamic education because in India and Europe the education was limited but in Islam had a literate society and China had both limited education and a literate society.

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