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Causes And Spread Of Infection

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Understand the cause of infection:
1)Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Bacteria – bacteria are extremely small singular organisms which are found almost everywhere.

Viruses – it is a coated genetic material that invades cells and uses the cells apparatus for reproduction.

Fungi – it is a multi-celled living organism.

Parasites – they are types of living plants and animals that derive benefit from the metabolism of other animals and plants. 2)Identify common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Bacteria can cause things such as tonsillitis, ear infections, food poisoning and sexually transmitted infections. These are generally stopped by antibiotics prescribed by your doctor. Viruses can cause things such as common cold, warts, hepatitis and rabies these things can be caught from different things e.g. rabies from an animal bite whereas hepatitis can be caught sexually or through things such as a sharp prick. Fungi can cause things such as athlete’s foot, yeast infection, nail infection and thrush. Infections like these are usually treated with antifungal cream and can be caused not drying your skin properly when showered or wearing tight uncomfortable clothing. Parasites can cause things such as worms, malaria and cutaneous leishmaniasis (caused from a sand fly bite).

The most common one worldwide is worms, it can cause lots of problems and make people become very ill, and animals can carry certain types of worms too. 3)Describe what is meant by ‘infection’ and ‘colonisation’. Infection; this is an invasion to the bodies tissue from a disease caused by microorganisms. Colonisation; this is where microorganisms multiply without tissue invasion. 4)Explain what is meant by ‘systemic infection’ and ‘localised infection’. Systemic infection; this is where the infection distributes throughout the whole body. For example influenza, it affects the whole body. Localised infection; this is where the infection is specific to one part of the body. For example an ear infection, its only affecting this part of the body.

5)Identify poor practice that may lead to the spread of infection. While in work to stop/minimise the spread of infection you should always wash your hands when appropriate e.g. before and after patient contact, also you should wear PPE at all times. This includes scrubs and indoor shoes, gloves and masks when needed. As well as wearing correct clothing and equipment you should also clean the theatre and area of work correctly and efficiently when finished each case and at the end of the day damp dust everywhere to minimise the spread of infection.

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