About Axolotl Which is a Family of Salamander – The Biology Behind The Regeneration of Body
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Axolotl, zoological name is Ambystoma Mexicanum which is a family of Salamander mainly related to the type of tiger salamander. But it is generally known to everyone by the name as “walking fish”, originally it is an amphibian. This amphibian was resided in several lakes. Axolotls are different from other amphibians since it reaches its adulthood without involved in metamorphosis. This had been found in aquatic and have gills for respiration process.
Due to urbanization this axolotl reached near extinction and also affected by water pollution. At present, they considered as an endangered species. This species will make a revolution in research field due to their regeneration ability of the organs even it is spinal cord. Its growth at the age of 19-23 months will be in the ranges from 15-45cm length. Most common, the size is nearer to 23cm and greater than 30cm. Among the different types of salamander, axolotl only possess an external gill which make them to be reside in aquatic.
Axolotls have four pigmentation genes hence they found to be at four different colors. They are leucistic (pale pink with black eyes), albino (golden with gold eyes), axanthic(grey with black eyes) and melanoid (black without gold speckling).
The most fascinating thing in this species, which mesmerized many researchers is its healing ability. When an axolotl lost its limbs or any organs in their body due to trauma, it either heal without
scarring or regenerate the damaged limb or any organ within a month. They can also regenerate the certain part of the brain when they undergo trauma. It also has another biological functions which makes the researcher attracts them most. This axolotl does not undergo any graft rejection during transplantation. Incase if any other axolotl transplants its organs such as eye, lungs etc., to another axolotl, the acceptation of the certain organ is easy and it function properly which is same as like its own organs.
And there is also another interesting facts about this axolotl which is, it not only breath by using it gills and also by skin. They can regenerate or restore kidney, lungs, limbs etc., more than 100 times when it is damaged. Axolotl are generally identified as Neotony. It meant that they reach maturity without involved in metamorphosis.
Actually the restoration concept of axolotl make most of the researcher to implement this idea into humans for regenerating the vital parts of the body when they injured due to accident. But it might be more complicated to know the regeneration process in axolotl than expected. The researchers also find another invertebrates that has the ability of regenerating its entire body such as flatworms and hydra. Even the adult human can also regenerate skin and liver cells limited.
Let us consider that the axolotl lost its limb due to any trauma or diseased condition. The response of the axolotl body may undergo following steps:
· Limb get damaged due to trauma hence bleeding occur. In order to stop hemorrhage, clotting mechanism takes place at the injury site.
· After that, the injury site is covered by a layer of cells which give a structure for that site called as wound epidermis.
· The cells in the wound epidermis grows and divide rapidly. This rapid division/growth of cell yield a cone formation on the top of the injury site which is called as Blastema.
· In this stage only, bones, muscles, cartilages, tendons etc., are able to regenerated. And finally it restore its perfect structure of limb after the process of Re-differentiation and Re-developmental stages.
The two important regeneration compounds which is found in axolotl are p53 proteins and TGF-β1(Transforming Growth Factor-Beta one).
Inorder to achieve this regeneration method to another species , the detailed study of this compound and their process are investigated and understand clearly for better future. But till now the molecular changes occur during regeneration by the axolotl have not been successfully investigated. When they found it has been somewhat easy to implement this in human and also for endangered species. But it seem to be milestone away from our vision. And also dedicated tools and other way approaches are needed to develop from the researcher side to make this impossible idea to become as possible one.
Recently scientist found that this amphibian is 1000 times more resistant to cancer. This will give a sign for the treatment of cancer in future. These mighty characteristics of axolotls can be investigated and studied more at genetic level. Since genetics studies of axolotl can give an accuracy information at molecular even at cellular level.
In future this idea will provide healing process in various stream for example burning victims can be minimized by tissue healing and also aids to eradicate the complications which is found in transplants such as autograft, allograft, xenograft etc., may be at present it seem to be as myth but within 15 to 30 years it has become common treatment for various types of trauma or diseases. The most attraction is they provide treatment for various types of cancers.